Multiple electric vehicle manufacturers, charging networks, and charging equipment suppliers in North America are now evaluating the use of Tesla's North American Charging Standard (NACS) charging connector.
NACS was developed by Tesla in-house and used as a proprietary charging solution for both AC and DC charging. On November 11, 2022, Tesla announced the opening of the standard and the NACS name, with a plan that this charging connector will become a continent-wide charging standard.
At the time, the entire EV industry (besides Tesla) was using the SAE J1772 (Type 1) charging connector for AC charging and its DC-extended version - the Combined Charging System (CCS1) charging connector for DC charging. CHAdeMO, used initially by some of the manufacturers for DC charging, is an outgoing solution.
In May 2023 things accelerated when Ford announced the switch from CCS1 to NACS, starting with next-generation models in 2025. That move annoyed the Charging Interface Initiative (CharIN) association, which is responsible for CCS. Within two weeks, in June 2023, General Motors announced a similar move, which was considered a death sentence for CCS1 in North America.
Tesla: North American Charging Standard vs. CCS1
As of mid-2023, two of the largest North American vehicle manufacturers (General Motors and Ford) and the largest all-electric car manufacturer (Tesla, with a 60-plus percent share in the BEV segment) are committed to NACS. This move caused an avalanche, as more and more EV companies are now joining the NACS coalition. While we were wondering who might be next, CharIN announced support for the NACS standardization process (over 51 companies signed-up in the first 10 days or so).
Most recently, Rivian, Volvo Cars, Polestar, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Fisker, Honda and Jaguar announced the switch to NACS, starting in 2025.
The potential ultimate scenario might be the replacement of the J1772 and CCS1 standards with NACS, although there will be a transition period when all types will be used on the infrastructure side. Currently, US charging networks will have to include CCS1 plugs to be eligible for public funds - this also includes the Tesla Supercharging network.
On July 26, 2023, seven BEV manufacturers - BMW Group, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, and Stellantis - announced that they will create in North America a new fast-charging network (under a new joint venture and without a name yet) that will operate at least 30,000 individual chargers. The network will be compatible with both CCS1 and NACS charging plugs and is expected to offer an elevated customer experience. The first stations will be launched in the US in the summer of 2024.
In this post, we will track and update the current state of the transition from CCS1 to NACS in North America, combining all the details in one place.
[Last update: September 22, 2023]
North American Charging Standard (NACS)
The Combined Charging System (CCS1) plug and inlet - Ford F-150 Lightning
There are various plugs and inlets used around the world for EV charging, depending on the market and its specifics. Here are the most popular types:
- SAE J1772 (Type 1): For AC charging (1-phase). The maximum power rating is up to 19.2 kW (80 A at 240 V)
- Combined Charging System (CCS1) aka SAE J1772 Combo (CCS Combo 1) for DC fast charging. The maximum power output currently is 500 kW (assuming 500 A at 1,000 V).
[technology and technical specification of the CCS]
- IEC 62196-2 (Type 2) for AC (1-phase or 3-phase charging scenarios). The maximum power output is 14.5 kW (63 A at 230 V) 1-phase or 43.5 kW (at 63 at 230 V) 3-phase.
- Combined Charging System (CCS2) for DC fast charging. The maximum power output currently is up to 500 kW (assuming 500 A at 1,000 V).
[example 500 kW CCS1/CCS2 connectors: HUBER+SUHNER RADOX HPC500, Phoenix Contact]
- NACS for AC (1-phase) and DC charging. The maximum power rating has not been specified, although according to Tesla, the NACS will handle up to 1 MW power (continuously) in a 1,000 V configuration (assuming 1,000 A). [technical specification of the NACS]
[Jun 27, 2023] SAE announced that it will standardize the Tesla-developed NACS charging connector
- CHAdeMO for DC charging. An outgoing type of charging connector in North America, which originated from Japan and was pioneered by Nissan in 2010, on the Nissan Leaf model.
- Chinese GB/T connectors, which have two separate connectors for AC and DC charging.
* The maximum power output might increase in the future (via an update to the standard/new plug design). Plugs or inlets currently used on the market are certified for a certain current or voltage (not necessarily the maximum value described in the standard).
A comparison of CCS1 and CCS2 plugs and inlets:
CHAdeMO charging inlet:
2018 Nissan LEAF CHAdeMO DC fast charging inlet
GB/T charging inlets (left for AC and right for DC) on a Tesla car in China:
Tesla Supercharging in China
Tesla Supercharging station in China
Tesla charging inlets: NACS in North America and CCS2-compatible in Europe:
Tesla Supercharging - NACS plug
Tesla Supercharging in Europe: CCS2-compatible plug and inlet
Automakers That Confirmed Adoption Of The NACS Charging Connector
Electric vehicle manufacturers (alphabetically), which are committed to using the NACS charging connector in North America:
- Tesla [creator of the NACS; since 2012 in all new car models]
[Nov 11, 2022] Announces the opening of its proprietary charging standard and the North American Charging Standard (NACS) name.
- Aptera [Nov 11, 2022] Aptera intends to use NACS in its upcoming first EV model (Lectron to provide the charging inlet)
- General Motors [June 8, 2023] GM next-generation EVs (from 2025) to be equipped with NACS charging inlet. NACS adapters for existing CCS1-compatible models will be available from 2024. [June 9, 2023] GM's Pure Watercraft look forward to using NACS in electric boats
- Fisker [Aug 15, 2023] Fisker will adopt NACS charging connector in North America in 2025
- Ford [May 25, 2023] Ford next-generation EVs (from 2025) to be equipped with NACS charging inlet. NACS adapters for existing CCS1-compatible models will be available from 2024.
- Honda and Acura [Aug 18, 2023] Honda And Acura To Follow GM And Adopt Tesla's NACS
[Sep 7, 2023] Honda officially confirmed the switch to NACS, starting in 2025.
- Jaguar [Sep 21, 2023] Jaguar EVs will gain access to Tesla Supercharging network
- Mercedes-Benz [Jun 15, 2023] Mercedes-Benz is evaluating "a technical implementation" of the NACS charging connector
[July 7, 2023] Mercedes-Benz Announces Switch To NACS In North America From 2025
- Nissan [Jul 19, 2023] Nissan to adopt NACS charging connector in North America
- Polestar [Jun 29, 2023] Polestar Announces Switch To NACS In North America From 2025
- Rivian [Mar 21, 2023] Rivian added Tesla Supercharging locations to its navigation system,
[Jun 20, 2023] Rivian to implement Tesla charging port on R1S and R1T in 2025 (and upcoming R2 platform). NACS adapters for existing CCS1-compatible models will be available from 2024.
- Volvo [Jun 27, 2023] Volvo BEVs in North America to use NACS charging inlet from 2025. NACS adapters for existing CCS1-compatible models will be available from H1 2024.
Automakers That Are Considering Adopting The NACS Charging Connector
Reports (official and unofficial) about other EV manufacturers:
- Hyundai [June 20, 2023] Hyundai will consider Tesla's NACS charging connector (support for high-voltage needed)
- Lucid [June 15, 2023] Lucid Appears Reluctant To NACS, Needs High-Voltage Version
- Stellantis [Jun 13, 2023] Stellantis "continues to evaluate" Tesla's NACS
- Toyota [Jun 14, 2023] Tesla CEO Elon Musk noted in one of the comments that Toyota "should join the NACS coalition", which might be considered as some kind of invitation.
- Volkswagen Group [Jun 29, 2023] Volkswagen Group and its brands are evaluating the implementation of the NACS in North America.
EV Charging Networks That Confirmed Adoption Of the NACS Charging Connector
Electric vehicle charging networks (alphabetically), committed to using NACS:
- Tesla Supercharging network [native since September 2012; 10 years report]
- BC Hydro [Jun 30, 2023] BC Hydro charging network to adopt NACS
- Blink Charging [Jun 12, 2023] Blink will offer NACS DC fast chargers, which means that NACS units will be included in its network.
- ChargePoint [Jun 12, 2023] ChargePoint will offer NACS DC and AC charging solutions, which means that NACS units will be included in its network.
- Electrify America [Jun 29, 2023] Electrify America will add NACS connectors to its chargers by 2025.
- EVgo [Jun 12, 2023] EVgo announced plans to expand NACS deployments. Already has around 600 integrated Tesla connectors (using CHAdeMO to Tesla adapters).
- Rivian Adventure Network [Jun 20, 2023] Rivian Adventure Network will be expanded (most likely equipped with NACS plugs at some point in the future, following the switch to NACS by the brand).
- New Charging Network (name of the network to be announced later) [Jul 26, 2023] Seven EV manufacturers - BMW Group, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, and Stellantis announced a plan to create a new fast charging network in North America, which will be equipped with CCS1 and NACS charging plugs.
Charging Equipment Manufacturers That Will Adopt NACS Connector
The list of manufacturers of EV charging equipment (alphabetically), interested in adding the NACS option:
- Tesla AC and DC charging points, native since mid-2012
- ABB [Jun 9, 2023] ABB will add a Tesla NACS plug option.
- ADS-TEC Energy [Jun 29, 2023] ADS-TEC Energy announced battery-based fast chargers with NACS and CCS1
- Blink [Jun 12, 2023] Blink Charging announced a new dual-port CCS and NACS fast charger.
- BTC Power [Jun 20, 2023] BTC Power will integrate the NACS connector in 2024.
- ChargePoint [Jun 12, 2023] ChargePoint will offer NACS DC and AC charging solutions.
[Jun 28, 2023] ChargePoint announces availability of NACS charging solutions: AC & DC
- Eaton [July 14, 2023] Eaton confirms NACS connector option for new chargers in 2024
- EverCharge [Jun 9, 2023] EverCharge supports NACS and calls it superior tp CCS1.
- FLO [Jun 8, 2023] FLO will add the NACS charging connector option to its chargers.
- Freewire [May 30, 2023] Freewire Technologies will integrate the NACS connector to its Boost Chargers by mid-2024.
- Kempower [Jun 12, 2023] Kempower will add a NACS connector option for all charging solutions.
- Lectron [Nov 11, 2022] Lectron was mentioned by Aptera as its supplier of NACS charging inlet and EV charging equipment.
- Nxu [Jun 29, 2022] Nxu develops the NxuOne megawatt charging solution and intends to support NACS (at least near-term)
- SK Signet [Jun 15, 2023] SK Signet adds NACS plug option to all its chargers.
- Tritium [Jun 12, 2023] Tritium will add a Tesla NACS plug option (including a retrofit kit for existing chargers).
- Wallbox [Jun 12, 2023] Wallbox embraces NACS charging connector option.
- Webasto [Jun 22, 2023] Webasto NACS charging connector option "coming soon"
Federal And State Requirements For Charging Infrastructure
According to federal requirements for the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Formula Program (NEVI), to be eligible for public funds for new EV charging infrastructure in the United States, companies must equip chargers with Combined Charging System (CCS1) plugs (other types are optional).
The minimum requirement for a DC fast charging station is to have four CCS1 outputs, with the ability to charge four electric vehicles simultaneously (each with an output of 150 kW or more).
All publicly funded AC charging points are required to have J1772 plugs (6 kilowatts minimum).
"This final rule establishes a requirement that each DCFC located along and designed to serve users of designated AFCs must simultaneously deliver up to 150kW, as requested by the EV, and that each AC Level 2 port be capable of providing at least 6 kW per port simultaneously across all AC ports with an option to allow the customer to consent to accept a lower power level to allow power sharing or to participate in smart charge management programs. This final rule also clarifies that power sharing is permissible above the minimum 150-kW per-port requirement for DCFCs." - National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Standards and Requirements [see NEVI fact sheets]
Because the base requirements were announced several months before the CCS1 to NACS transition started in May/June, we guess that the requirements might change at some point in the future and also include NACS.
Some states already announced plans that they will require the North American Charging Standard (NACS) plugs (as an additional requirement):
- Kentucky [Jun 30, 2023] Kentucky mandates NACS to get public funding for chargers
- Texas [Jun 21, 2023] Texas will require NACS compatibility to get public funding for chargers.
[Jul 1, 2023] EV charging companies protest Texas' move to mandate NACS connector
[Jul 12, 2023] Texas again delays vote on tying EV charging funds to Tesla's NACS
- Washington [Jun 23, 2023] Washington state to mandate the Tesla plug for charging companies using fed funds.
Charging infrastructure projects that are not supported by NEVI can use any charging solution.
Other Markets And CCS1 To NACS Implications
The switch from CCS1 to NACS in the United States and in the broader North American region is expected to affect other markets around the world. At least those which also used CCS1 as the primary EV charging connector.
Those markets are smaller than the US market, and there seems to be no reason for them to stick with an eventually orphaned CCS1 plug.
The primary market to be concerned with in this regard is South Korea. There might be a few other regions as well.
In Japan, there is no CCS1, but rather J1772 (AC) and CHAdeMO (DC). However, as Tesla uses its proprietary plug for Supercharging and CHAdeMO is struggling outside of Japan, Japan might consider a switch. The decision about a charging standard must include the long-term interest (even things like the value and export potential of used cars to surrounding markets).
Europe and other markets that follow the CCS2 connector are not directly affected by the change to NACS, especially since CCS2 supports three-phase charging, which is crucial in the majority of the world.
China has its own policy and two GB/T charging connectors (one for AC and one for DC charging). Tesla uses GB/T-compatible charging inlets and plugs in this country.