100 Weeks From Now, Volkswagen Will Start I.D. Production, 100,000 Units In 2020

3 weeks ago by Mark Kane 68

Volkswagen starts countdown to start of production of the first I.D. model

I.D. is on its way, says Volkswagen.

Just ~100 weeks from launching production of its first all-electric car based on the next generation MEB platform, Volkswagen held its “MEB Supplier Summit” in Wolfsburg earlier this month.


Volkswagen I.D.

The I.D. model is scheduled for production in late 2019 at its Zwickau plant in Saxony. Production volume is claimed to be 100,000 in 2020.

In total, the Volkswagen brand aims to have more than 20 BEVs by 2022.

“The largest product and technology offensive in the history of the Volkswagen brand is now taking shape. 100 weeks ahead of the planned start of production of the first model in the I.D. family, the brand Board of Management agreed on milestones in the run-up to production with key suppliers at the “MEB Supplier Summit”. The first vehicle based on the new modular electric drive kit (MEB) is to be the compact all-electric Volkswagen I.D.1) which is to roll off the production line at the Zwickau plant in Saxony from the end of 2019.”

The MEB toolkit includes electric motors with different power ratings and flat batteries in the floorpan.


New MEB Architecture To Underpin 300+ Mile Mid-Size EV From VW For 2019

Together with his colleagues on the Board of Management and the top managers of key suppliers, Dr. Herbert Diess, the CEO of the Volkswagen brand, signed an agreement based on partnership to ensure an excellent start of production. Diess:

“Our preparations for entry to the new era of affordable e-mobility are well underway. In this unique industrial project, we intend to work together to ensure that Europe is ahead in the global race to the lead in e-mobility. Zwickau will therefore be developing into the largest European e-mobility center. This will enable us to write a new chapter in the history of the automobile.”

In the space of five years, the Volkswagen Group brands are to launch a total of 32 models based on the new platform throughout the world. Diess emphasized the dimensions of the project: “We are determined to take the lead. The Volkswagen brand alone will be offering more than 20 all-electric models by 2022 and will be investing about €6 billion in e-mobility over the next five years.”

Ralf Brandstätter, Board of Management Member responsible for Procurement, explained:

“To date, more than 100 suppliers have already been nominated within the framework of our electric offensive. What I find important is the fact that a new type of cooperation for our partners and Volkswagen begins today – we are involving top suppliers in development work on the I.D. project considerably more intensively and at a significantly earlier stage.”

In 2020, more than 100,000 Volkswagen vehicles will be built on the MEB platform, said Christian Senger, Vice President Product Line e-Mobility:

“We have significantly reduced the complexity of the I.D. project and shortened the product creation process by 11 months. The new vehicle architecture, autonomous driving and the topics of networking and services will call for a working model involving close networking with all partners and suppliers. The plan for the product has been set out and we will now devote all our energy to implementing it together.”

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68 responses to "100 Weeks From Now, Volkswagen Will Start I.D. Production, 100,000 Units In 2020"

  1. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

    Volkswagen remains the undisputed King of Vaporware, especially when it comes to putting EVs into production.

    I’ll believe it when I see reports that VW is actually tooling up a production line to produce the I.D., and not before.

    1. Robert says:

      Does this mean we will get a story a week totaling 100 when the ID will come out? Come on Inside EVs enough is enough of these VW stories.

      1. drpawansharma says:

        I wonder who makes the batteries for VW

        1. Kuk says:

          VW also still wonder who will make batteries for them. :)))

        2. Johann says:

          They have acquired the Energizer Bunny for this purpose. Current plans are to feed the bunny a highly specialized diet, which will in theory, cause it to expel dark energy. Still working out the specifics.

      2. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

        There was a report some months ago that VW had put in a large order with LG Chem; an order dwarfing GM’s order for the Bolt EV. However, LG Chem denied the rumor (see link below), but it was a curiously specific denial, with LG Chem saying only “No contract has been agreed on.” That may mean nothing more than the truism that treaty negotiators often quote: “Nothing is agreed to until everything is agreed to.”

        I certainly hope that report is true! If it is, then VW does have some real plans for making and selling long-range EVs hidden somewhere in all that vaporware.


    2. Alltesla says:

      Audi is

    3. Forever Green says:

      Pushmi-Pullyu, +1

    4. William says:

      Pushy for the Win!

    5. John Doe says:

      I’ve been to the factory several month ago. They are taking their time. 100 weeks.. Much of the equipment is already installed.
      They have a very modern stamping line, corrotion and paint line. Body transportation lines and so on.

      I wonder if some of the time is just waiting for the batteries to come down in price?

      How much of the car is 100% finished when it comes to the design/engineering?
      I know they have partners, that have a certain lead time for the products. All the products are supposed to be ready, just in time, in the right volume at the right time.
      A lot of planning to make it work well.

      Would have loved to see the contract with LG or Samsung, to see how often the battery price is adusted over a years production cycle. Same price for a year? Does it change once a month?
      Have they thought about technology change – in case a battery company can start to deliver solid state batteries by the end of 2019 – or will the car come with regular batteries for the duration of the vehicle?
      Will solid state batteries be so expensive, that only high end models will feature them?

      I would have thought they could release this car in Q2 2018, just by looking at the production area and equipment – but I’m sure they have their reasons. It is very complex to set up a productionline, with a lot of steps. They will simulate this on software like Catia or Pro/E and what not. Not to mention all the programming for the automation. All the systems that’s going to work together.
      All the steps have to be as fast, smooth, correct as possible, and if people are involved it has to comply with workers safety rules. There is a lot of work to make jigs, from tiny to large advanced multi-step types.
      Some they make themselves, others (most)are made by special companies.

      All the work in real world testing also takes time, in order to sort out things that looks and tested good on the computer, but has a weakness in real life.
      Changes to the production line can take several weeks for every adjustment they make over the testing period.

      I just thought they would release the car only a short while after the first Audi.

      I wonder how long after this model hits the market we’ll see EVs from brands like Ford, Suzuki, Fiat group, PSA, Mazda, Toyota, Subaru and others?
      Should VW have released the model quicker? For the competition, it must be nice to know when VW will release this model. They have the ability to speed up their design prosess, and get a competing model in about the same timeframe. It they secretly have worked on a EV platform, which I think many of them have – without telling the media about it.

      1. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

        “Would have loved to see the contract with LG or Samsung, to see how often the battery price is adusted over a years production cycle. Same price for a year? Does it change once a month?”

        A slide intended for GM internal viewing only was accidentally shown to the public; it showed LG Chem’s $145/kWh price for The Bolt EV’s li-ion batteries remaining fixed for 3 years; presumably that was per GM’s contract with LG Chem (see link below).

        However, according to InsideEVs’ own Jay Cole, LG has gotten into a bit of a price war with Samsung, so it’s quite possible that price did not hold as long as expected.

        But I think it’s safe to say they don’t adjust the price every month. I would guess — please note it’s just a guess — that the average time between price adjustments is no shorter than once a year. On the other hand, a “price war” might suggest more frequent price adjustments.

        1. mx says:

          Well, if they did adjust GM’s battery price downward, and GM wanted more sales, there’d be the possibility of a price decrease on the Bolt.

          We’ll have to see what GM management wants:
          1) A compliance car.
          2) Market share.

          1. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

            Personally, I’d far rather GM use most of any drop in cost to increase its profit margin on the Bolt EV, rather than lower the price. A fatter profit margin would give GM much greater incentive to sell the car in foreign countries, such as in Europe and S. Korea and Canada, where there is huge unsatisfied demand.

            Who knows? GM might even put a right-hand-drive version into production! There’s a thought about how to increase the market for the car… 🙄 Maybe even sales in Japan?

            Despite some complaints about the Bolt EV’s front seats and the styling which doesn’t generally appeal to Americans, I think the car has a significant potential for worldwide sales. I’d love to see GM increase production to the point that it could actually satisfy demand, not just domestically but internationally. If a price war between Samsung and LG Chem will help that happen, then: Up the price war! 🙂

        2. MrDoubleb says:

          Yeah, but AFAIK that’s not the “real price” LG is delivering the entire drivetrains and infotainment system of the Bolt and made a package deal with all that. Remains to be seen if VW is going to do the same or keep the drivetrains internal and just buy cells. It would be a different price then… but than again volume matters too and lets not forget we are talking 3-4 years after that LG-GM deal was made too.

    6. Al says:

      That’s right! Lets talk only about real products, like electric semis, electric pickups and Model Y which will be for sale any minute now.

      1. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

        You might want to take just a minute out of your off-topic Tesla bashing to note that when Tesla talks about putting a vehicle into production, they actually do eventually get around to doing that.

        Unlike Volkswagen.

    7. tftf says:

      Do you enjoy your Tesla solar roof, PP?

      Please let me know how the installation and daily use goes.

      1. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

        “PP” being me?

        You must have me confused with someone else. We’re not putting in a solar roof here; our stupid and arguably insane HOA agreement prevents it. 🙁

  2. G2 says:

    The “plan” sounds great; now lets see the execution.

    1. Disappointed says:

      “now lets see the execution”

      You just saw it as performed by,

  3. Ct200h says:

    100 weeks = 2 years……..Vaporware. They have learned a lot from Audi.
    I don’t even want that car ID thing . Bad news for VW.

  4. glenn peterson says:

    I wonder were they will get all of there lithium from???

    Massive deposit in Czech republic

    1. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

      Lithium is a common element, and despite the name “lithium ion batteries” they don’t really use that much lithium; no need to worry about that. If you see an article suggesting a shortage in lithium, it’s just someone trying to sell you speculative mineral exploration stocks.

      If you want to worry about suppliers running short of one of the materials that go into li-ion batteries, worry about the cobalt.

  5. Maartenv-nl says:

    We are very progressive white male conservatives. Showing the world how serious we are by producing 1% of our cars without a combustion engine.
    And we are NOT the last to start doing this, somewhere there must be a carmaker more cautious than us. /sarcasm

    1. Maybe….Suzuki?
      Fiat Motors?

      1. mx says:


    2. Terawatt says:

      Well, if it’s one of 13 BEV models by 2020 and out of 22 by 2022, the total share should definitely exceed a single percent. But I totally agree with your sentiment – this is a ridiculously unambitious target for 2020, especially since the ID is being touted as the affordable volume model…

    3. James says:

      Subaru? Mazda.

  6. Terawatt says:

    VW sells ten million cars a year and aim for more than that in 2020. I can’t say a target of 0.1 million for their electric next-gen Golf strikes me as a particularly ambitious target!

    I’m sure they will do many more models besides the ID, but this is supposedly their new volume offering, no?!?

    Come on VW, your target should be at least triple of this!

    1. Buyers lead what VW Makes. If buyers keep buying their Pure ICE Models, VW will keep making them. If their ICE sales drop as much % as their EV offeeing sales grow, it will be a big wakeup call! If not, then expect a slow Plugin % of Total sales growth for them!

      1. sveno says:

        You know you just hinted that VW is a market follower and not a leader.

        1. Johann says:

          Without followers, who will the leaders lead?

    2. jpo234 says:

      The 10 million is VW Group, not the VW brand. You have to include Audi (Etron), Porsche (Mission E), Skoda (Vision Ende), Seat and so on. By 2020 Audi will have at least 3 BEVs in production (one per year starting 2018), Porsche will be on its second model and the other brands will roll out their first generation of BEVs. I would not be surprised, if VW Group overall produced a million BEVs in 2020,most of them in China.

      1. John Doe says:

        Yeah, I agree on this.
        It’s one of the things people will find out for themselves. There is a huge green change in Germany, and since so many companies, rules and regulations are involved – it will be massive.
        People in the US don’t seem to grasp the change that is happening in Germany and many European countries. In general, it’s just a long continuation starting with pollution control, recycling to solar and wind enegy, and now a massive change in the industry that will happen over a fairly short period of just 10-15 years.
        Some jobs are lost, some are created.
        Countries that are leading in all the green industries will benefit from this in the future, since it creates jobs too.

        Does this mean there will not be drilled for oil no more? No, the plastic, foam and fabrics in most cars (EVs too) are made of oil. Much of the fabrics in your carpets, funriture, clothes and so on comes from oil.
        What about your shampoo bottle, the containers for your food, paint, your fake Christmas tree and what not.
        In some countries it is legal with landfills, and some of the plastic can find their way out in nature again. In some countries it is legal to use spraypaint to get a green lawn, even though the paint contains micro plastic.

        Some people think they save the world since they drive an EV, while then have a poorly insulated home and use a lot of energy to cool or heat the house. They don’t recycle, they buy a lot of stuff they don’t need, so they keep all the container ships from Asia busy, with clothes only used a few times, makeup containing micro plastics or hormones, or they throw surplus antibiotics down the drain, they eat a lot of meat, buy food with palm oil, use a lot of soybeans (products) and so on.

        1. Nick says:

          “Only 4% of global oil production is used for plastics.”


          1. John Doe says:

            That is surpricingly little, compared to the massive use of plastic in the world.

            It is at least better to make plastic from it, then burn it in an engine.

            The plastic can be recycled, or burned for energy after use.
            Thank you for the link. I would have thought at least 10-15% was used in plastic.
            Maybe it is because I don’t used gas/oil for heating, fuel for a car or anything like that. I just use a few liter a year for a lawn mower. In 2-3 years time we’ll replace it with an electric too – if not sooner. Noisy POS.

            Compared to the huge volume of plastic we recycle every year 4% seems to be really small. Before it is compacted, I think we fill a 20 foot container every second year or so.

            On the other hand, when I see all the diesel just one of the long distance trucks at work use. . It seems more correct.

            1. MM says:

              There is no plastic in our home that could not have been made from soybeans.

  7. Yogurt says:

    Ultimately CEOs produce what car buyers purchase…
    When consumers let the CEOs know they will not buy ICE cars any more they will stop making them…
    A bunch of fan bois crying on an enthuist site does not stop joe consumer from buying his F150 and land yaht SUV…
    Just like when all of American manufacturing moved to China because joe consumer would not pay 5 cents more for an American product…
    And FYI VW is currently the 10th leading producer of vaporware worldwide and has sold around 2,000 vaporware Golfs the last 4 months and is increasing its current vaporwarw production but I do agree that is still a little disapointing with their size…
    But the big news for VW BEVs starts in 2018 in China the worlds new leader by doing…
    And FYI for commentors here I am calling China the worlds leader not VW…

    1. Yogurt says:

      That should say 2000 vaporware Golfs per momth for the last four months…

  8. DJ says:

    So when Tesla says they’ll release products in 2020 you guys go ape crap but when VW does it’s vaporware. In addition VW gets crap for not doing enough but then when they have a full fledged plan in place and put it out there you just give them crap over and over for it.

    Is is any wonder why people think you are ridiculous. I for one am rooting for VW!!

    1. floydboy says:

      Well, when you actually put into production those concepts you show off, like Tesla, people tend to believe you the next time around. When you show off a lot of concepts, but build NOTHING, it kind of elicits skepticism. Don’t get me wrong, we ARE rooting for them and hoping this time VW’s for real. But just in case…..show us a little more commitment!

      1. DJ says:

        So VW has no production EVs?? Oh wait of course they do!!!

        How are those Tesla solar roof installs going…

        All you are doing is proving my point so thanks for that. VW deserves all the crap they get, and more for dieselgate but enough already with the double standard when it comes to EVs where Tesla can do no wrong meanwhile everybody else basically can’t do anything right…

        1. Doubledutch says:

          Because of dieselgate, you do not have to be a conspiracy theorist to reason that VW has the motivation to greenwash their press releases. 2020 is a long way off and meanwhile we have the e-Golf with its 186 mile NEDC/ 125 mile EPA rating. That is simply not enough in 2018. Compare with not just the Teslas but the Bolt and also the new Leaf.

          I am sure that VW is serious about their production plans, but if the 100,000 figure is correct, it is timid for a company of that size. Hopefully this is just the European production and there will be further production lines in China and Mexico.

    2. guyinacar says:

      It’s not that, DJ. It’s not about Tesla at all. The problem is that VW perpetually pre-pre-announces, then uniquely underdelivers. They’ve been doing it for about a decade. So root all you want, but the perception among many readers of this board is that VW is the “little boy who cried Wolfsburg” when it comes to EV announcements. Few folks ’round here believe the drumbeat of VW announcements any more. See BMW, GM, and SpaceX for contrast. Love or hate their products, those other firms under-hype, but then release products approximately on time. Tesla is somewhere in the middle, but Tesla gets a pass because their ambitions (and innovations) have been spectacular, and they’re playing a numbers game with gov’t incentives. Toyota doesn’t take a lot of ribbing, because they commercialized the whole hybrid category, but then (mis)invested in hydrogen. The market has spoken, but at least Toyota tried, they really tried. VW stands alone as king of EVaporware.

      1. John Doe says:

        You need to look up documentation regarding the green shift in Europe.
        You have to Google information about all the part suppliers in Germany, and see how they are shifting from their main product (which they usually are world leading in volume). You have to read about the massive change in rules and regulations that is happening. They huge taske they are working on with MASSIVE infrastructure changes. Such changes takes time, and to some extent a volume EV have to have a lot of this in order be be sold to a fair price, in high volumes so they can make money doing so. The VW group make over 27 000 cars a day.. they have to make money.
        All the facts are out there, it just takes some effort to find all. Then you can make a good judgement.

        As for all the vaporware comments.. yeah.. they are eager to show off future products. It is probably a cheap way to get a lot of attention too.
        At the same time.. in 2013 Tesla started to talk about Model 3. A year later they continued to talk about M3. Another two years goes by, and they show a prototype/design car – and starts to take orders.. almost another two years, they have started some kind of pre production.. so.. this took 5 years.. like so many people nag about in the comments about cars from any non Tesla companies. Some people who have pre ordered the car will not get it before 2020.. maybe 2021.. so 7-8 years.
        They have also talked about model Y for some time now – and I’m sure it will take 5 years before that is for sale as well.

        Would be better if people focused on the important things, like getting more EVs on the road – no matter what brand it has.

        1. William says:

          5 years for the Tesla Model Y?
          You may want to divide that figure by 2 in less than 12 months.

          There is absolutely no way the Model Y doesn’t make at least some decent number of actual customer deliveries, by the end of 2020.

        2. But Tesla had to build the factory buy machines and tooling assemble a workforce and build batteries for cars and solar. And solar panels and rocket ships VW has the factories the work, force the machines. They just do not have the social or moral commitment. Their lack of morals has cost them dearly. Their delays on electric instead of leading the world is a crime which like dieselgate they will pay dearly for.

    3. William says:

      I am skeptically rooting for VW, right behind you!

      The VW auto group has a portion of its ownership, that has at its core, a business model that absolutely necessitates the continuation of Global Middle East oil extraction and sales. These institutions have to actively promote and keeep in check, this many decades old ongoing Business Model. All this, to keep its extremely valuable market share in check, on as large a scale as possible. This keeps profits up, without stalling production growth and a dwindling market share.

      It is a bit baffling to see a company (VW), at last months LA Auto Show, with a remarkably well done (if not the best) EV marketing campaign, besides the Tesla and Arcimoto presentation, with its misiscule marketing budget.

      VW is putting all of this pomp and circumstance, into EVs that won’t actually arrive for a whole two more model years (and LA Auto Shows). All the while, other ICE manufacturers, Nissan, GM, BMW, Jag, and Arcimoto, are actually going to deliver in the Next Annual Product Cycle ( less than 12 months ).

      VW continues to deliver practically “Farfegnu-thing” in EVs, and with a careful understanding of world financial markets in the automotive energy sector, Middle East being ground zero, VW has financial incentive to be a blatant stalwart and laggard, and now we know why.

    4. Zach says:

      Exactly the comment I was going to make, The Roadster is more than likely 3 years away but people are making out like it’s going to destroy every car around it and it’s going to be king.
      But the VW is just vapourware and nobody should care.

    5. Vexar says:

      By all means, do hold your breath until VW releases their ID EV.
      30 owners drove home their Tesla Model III’s before the end of July of this year, and 100x that will have gotten theirs by tomorrow.

      I am more skeptical of VW not from the standpoint of their engineering, but their proven reluctance to deliver on prototypes, especially on environmental platforms. Maybe I doubt the whole battery subject just a little more than others here, it seems to me that’s the part of their equation lagging.

      I don’t know anyone who has a Tesla Solar Roof, nor do I know what causes the delays. I’ll grant you that. However, I do know two people with the Model III already, and you know what? I live in Minnesota, and both of them are right here, right now.

    6. Pushmi-Pullyu says:

      DJ continued his off-topic and comically desperate Tesla bashing campaign:

      “So when Tesla says they’ll release products in 2020 you guys go ape crap but when VW does it’s vaporware.”

      Why are you such an apologist for VW? Do you actually work for VW? No, it seems that you just like to find any excuse to bash Tesla, no matter how fact-free and untruthful your assertions are.

      I can’t even count the number of articles we’ve seen here at InsideEVs where Volkswagen claimed it was putting some EV or other into production, while quite obviously having not the slightest intent of actually doing so. One IEV article even said that VW has claimed more than a dozen times that it will put the I.D. Buzz into production! You may note that it’s still not being produced.

      I personally followed the development of the VW “1-Litre car”, which became the L1 and then XL1; an interesting example of extreme engineering, sacrificing everything for fuel economy. I noted, with increasing cynicism, how many times VW said it was putting that into production. I was astonished when they actually did finally put the XL1 into very, very limited production… 250 units!

      When I say VW is the “King of Vaporware”, DJ, that’s not bashing VW; it’s being factually accurate. You might try that sometime; it would no doubt be a new experience for you. 🙄

  9. Daniel says:

    Old news. Today we are 98 weeks away.

  10. Forever Green says:

    “The Volkswagen brand aims to have more than 20 BEVs by 2022”.

    This is such a bunch of nonsense. It’s not funny anymore.

    1. HVACman says:

      VW now understands that the game has changed. The “concept ” game to just appease the green crowd is over. Develop and produce EVs for the retail market or die. In November GM set a firm goal of 2 new EV’s by 2020 and 20 new EV’s by 2022. If VW does not match, they will be yesterdays’ news.

      1. Lou Grinzo says:

        I sincerely hope VW has read the writing on the wall. Any company that hasn’t at this point will have a VERY tough future.

        As for what VW and some of the other foot-draggers will do in the near future, I’ve given up guessing, and am firmly in wait-and-see mode.

        1. John Doe says:

          In 2018/19 VW will probably make just as many EVs as Tesla.. Unless they really get the M3 production up to speed.
          They have at least one volume model in China, and the rest of the group increase volume.
          VW, AUDI and SEAT will release one new EV model a year.

          1. Vexar says:

            So, what you’re saying is that a real back-seat laggard EV maker like VW group will suddenly be ahead of GM and Nissan for manufacturing numbers of BEVs? Or do you mean PHEVs and HEVs? Because I’d believe they can catch up to BMW in making an EV with a tailpipe.

      2. John Doe says:

        VW group says they will release one new EV from VW, Audi and Skoda every year from 2018/2019.
        Time will tell.

        Since the VW group makes over 27 000 cars a day – they will at least have no problem making it. As long as enough people buys EVs they will make them. They are in the car business to make money.

  11. David Murray says:

    Well, if the production version looks just like the concept, has decent range and a good amount of acceleration power, I might consider trading my Volt for it. 🙂 But that’s two years away.

    1. jpo234 says:

      I think the ID Hatch will not come to the US, at least initially. The first ID slated for the US is the Crozz in 2021.

  12. John says:

    If I tell the world, “2-3 years from now..” indefinitely, without ever producing anything significant, can I get people to believe I’m EV-friendly?

    Dieselgate drives their vaporware, and the incredibly short-term memory of the public at large drives their their ever-changing timelines.

  13. Don Zenga says:

    We will not bug them every week.
    But every 10 weeks, we will ask them for some update, so they just need to provide 9 updates and finally on the 100th week, cars will roll out of the factory.

  14. leafowner says:

    Nice diversity in that photo VW – nothing says old, slow an uncreative like a bunch of old white guys in suits……You could not even scrounge up one woman just for some PC?!?

    1. floydboy says:

      Oops, I thought that was a picture of the Republican congress!

  15. TM says:

    I had to go back over a year to find out what I.D. meant. It was driving me crazy, I had to find out.

    I’ll now re-explain for those who are wondering what the heck I.D. stands for.

    The German pronunciation of “Idea”, spelled “Idee” is ee-day (long “E”, and “day” like the day of the week).

    The German Vowel “I” is pronounced like a long “E” in english. The German “D” is pronounced like the english word “day”.

    So pronounce the I and the D in german, and it sounds like ee-day, which is what the german word for “Idea” sounds like when pronounced in German.

    Das war eine gute Idee!

  16. This is about a climate change that will devastate the economies of the world. If we wait two years to tackle CO2 with a twenty year goal no one will have money for a new car they will be looking for food and shelter and fighting climate refugees.

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