Poll Suggests Lack Of Charging Stations Is Biggest EV Buying Deterrent

JUN 22 2018 BY MARK KANE 72

A survey conducted by Axios revealed that it’s not the initial price, but lack of charging stations, that is the biggest concern for consumers who are considering an electric car purchase.

The initial price of all-electric and plug-in hybrid cars are mostly higher than in case of a comparable conventional car (see our plug-in price card), but energy cost for driving are then several times lower.

Only less than 10% of consumers in the U.S. expressed that they are “extremely” or “very” interested in electric car – that’s several times more than current market share of over 1%.

The potential for growth then is tremendous in the coming years.

How likely are you to buy or lease an electric car? (Source: Axios)

However, we believe, that if someone doesn’t have a charging place in home or at work, it will be big barrier and most likely it will remain the biggest barrier in the future, as affordability of plug-ins is improving. In some cases, charging concerns could be related to the public infrastructure for long-distance travel.

Here are the biggest concerns:

  • Lack of charging stations – 47%
  • Initial cost – 41
  • Prefer gas power – 37
  • Lack of service centers – 28
  • Hybrid batteries bad for environment – 16
  • Not enough mileage – 9
  • Don’t want/need a car – 5
  • Waiting for self-driving cars – 2

Data: Survey Monkey poll conducted May 22-24, 2018. Poll methodology; Chart: Chris Canipe/Axios

Source: Axios

Categories: Charging

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72 Comments on "Poll Suggests Lack Of Charging Stations Is Biggest EV Buying Deterrent"

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Darth

Especially a concern for folks living in rental properties who cannot install their own home charger. I wonder how many EVs must be sold to incentivise rental property owners to install L2 charging? Do we need more government incentives? Could power companies help?

vzcxvzxczxvcx

Exactly. It’s amazing how many EV enthusiasts don’t realize that not everyone owns a home with a garage, or even a driveway. Tons of people just have no way to charge their car overnight.

And no, government incentives are not the answer. It’s only a matter of time. Folks just need to realize that we’re still decades away from EVs truly taking over. They’ll get there.

Dav8or

Exactly. The BEV is not a drop in replacement for the ICE powered vehicle at this time. In time it will be. The truth is, the BEV is not for everybody yet. It totally works for me, but I can see how it would be unworkable for many others. It’s unrealistic to believe that everyone could, or should drive a BEV at this time.

menorman

I’m in that camp. I unfortunately am in a 24kWh Leaf without the CHAdeMO port and no way to charge at home, so it is indeed a huge pain. Although I theoretically could send the landlord a letter invoking CA’s law providing renters with the right to install a charger, I can’t afford the install at the moment and many renters are also in that camp. Thus, public charging can probably be a solution for most people in this situation, especially cars with bigger batteries and the ability to use DCFC. As higher-power stations roll out and cars that accept higher rates hit the market, it will be possible to get a decent level of charge while getting the shopping done, working out, visiting the library or park, taking a night class, etc.

SparkEV

No home charging and no Chademo? Ouch! It feels like I just saw someone get kicked in the nuts. I hope your situation gets better soon, trade in that Leaf for a real EV (Bolt, i3, anything with DCFC).

Clive

I have a friend with the same Leaf.

It works perfectly fine for him.

ga2500ev

In the same charging situation? It can work if someone can charge at home or work. But if not, there’s a real challenge.

ga2500ev

energymatters

Check out http://www.electrictrees.com they focus specifically on apartment building charging.

trackdaze

unless its parked in a parallel dimension there will be a solution. Parked at work 8 or 9 hours a day? In the sun? at the shops? near a lamp post?

Mikael

You make it sound like installing chargers is something hard…

Nix

Tesla’s solution is Urban Charging Centers that they are building out now.

But actually the reality is that people who rent already have one solution: Choose a rental property where they can charge overnight and choose to rent that property. These very much exist, and at this point in time with EV penetration in the market, this is a viable solution.

Getting enough rental properties to have charging for every single person who rents is very much a future problem, which may be solved by super fast charging large capacity solid state batteries or some other solution we haven’t even heard about yet, before the EV owners in rental properties becomes the limiting factor in EV expansion.

menorman

I mean, choosing a place to rent that provides access to charging at home is a great idea on paper, but not always economically feasible.

Nix

Well, owning a car at all is not always economically feasible for everyone everywhere. That is true for ICE or EV’s.

Trying to solve for every single odd-ball corner-case at this point in EV rollout is counter-productive. Right now EV’s are in the low single digits. Focus on the vastly larger number of people who’s life situations are perfectly suitable for EV ownership right now.

Ziv

I own a gen 1 Volt and have a 120 plug that was installed for me at my condo. They charge me $25 a month to cover the electricity cost. Super simple, no need for even 3.3 kW chargers. You only gain 5 miles of AER per hour you are home, so it won’t recharge a nearly empty Bolt in one night, but it works well the vast majority of the time for an EREV.
Building engineer said the parts he used to install the new plug were less than $50.

John

It’s unfortunate how truly unimportant charging stations become as range of EV’s increases. The Bolt is reportedly going as far as 250+ miles without really hyper-miling, and Tesla’s have been 200+ mile range for over 6 years now. 95% of daily drivers go less than 50 miles per day, and with the ability to wake up with a fully charged battery every day, EV’s aren’t really too dependent on charging stations. It’s the ignorance and misunderstanding of the masses who have no experience with the EV platform (yet) that unfortunately rob themselves of the EV experience.

vzcxvzxczxvcx

The biggest ignorance I see is from EV enthusiasts that don’t realize that not everyone lives in a house in suburbia with a drive way (and thus has a convenient place to install a charger). How exactly is someone who lives in an apartment complex, owns a townhouse, lives in a big city, has to park on the street, etc supposed to charge their car? Heck, I live in suburbia and lots of folks in my neighborhood have to park on the street; you expect them to run long extension cables to the street?

Charging an EV must get as quick as filling a tank of gas in order for them to truly take over. Sorry, but 250 miles range is still garbage considering how much you have to pay to get that. Talk to me when a $20k car (without government incentives) can go 400 miles (i.e. what my current car can do) and I might start seriously considering buying an EV. Until that happens, EVs are just overpriced cars with less utility than a cheap ICE car.

Lou Grinzo
With your last sentence you commit the same sin that you (appropriately) accuse many plugheads of committing. You can make the case that “EVs are just overpriced cars with less utility than a cheap ICE car” for some people. As soon as you start making sweeping statements about utility you’re almost guaranteed to make serious mistakes. (As someone who has studied microeconomics extensively, this is a hotbutton issue.) I leased (and then bought) a 2013 Leaf S, which I just replaced with a 2018 Leaf SV. My total cost to acquire the 2013, including lease payments and then buying it, was $18,000, NOT counting the trade-in allowance I got for it. My net cost for the 2018, after my wife’s employee discount and Federal and NY State incentives, was about $24,000, again NOT including eventual trade value. And yes, I charge it overnight in my garage, making it a no brainer for me to buy a car I love driving that meets our needs and is insanely cheap to refuel and maintain. Overpriced? No. Lacking in utility? Not for me. I’ve contended since the earliest days of mass market EV availability that the number one hurdle was market psychology. If… Read more »
Another Euro point of view
For those reasons you listed I am more interested to read EV road tests by people/journalist having no specific bias in favor of EVs as it is the only way to know chances a new EV has against ICE. For example I often read here that 200 miles range is enough. To capture 10% of car market yes it is indeed probably enough, to capture a great deal more, most probably not. 200 miles range probably means 120-150 miles range for what many people consider like “normal” highway driving (85 mph) in the middle of a north European winter. Real mass market EV able to win like 30% of market share need to be like a Tesla Model 3 75kWh (long range) but sold for max $30k instead of the current $49k or so (not sure how much a long range Model 3 costs). Such a car will be coming but probably not before 2022 or so. And for those saying that the mass market EV can be more than $30k because average new car price is $35k+ I do not think it is relevant as it is the median price that matters for mass market capture (more around $25k).… Read more »
David

If you can’t do long distance charging then its a commuter car that will never leave your local area. Spending tons of money on a car that you can’t travel with is a non-starter for most people.

If its just a commuter car, as you said 30-50 mile range is sufficient. No need for 200+ mile range. The original LEAF would have been selling gangbusters as it had plenty of range…

Ariston

6 years? The real world range of a 60 kWh Model S is nowhere near 200+ miles especially in the winter. The 85 kWh maybe.

Gabriel Rheault

Lack and the time. If we had charging station every 150km, it would still bother me to stop every 250km (leaf 2018) to charge 45min

John

I get it, but the average US household has 2 vehicles (2006-2018), which means the front line vehicle can be an EV with an ICE (if roadtrip turnaround time is that important) as the secondary. It’s a perfect combination, but I still know so many families where both the husband and wife drive around in SUV’s and pickups alone much of the time. Save the ICE for occasional roadtrips/towing/etc and drive the heck out of a front-line EV. Or better yet, own 2 used, inexpensive EV’s and rent a vehicle for long distance road-trips.

Gasbag

“get it, but the average US household has 2 vehicles (2006-2018), which means the front line vehicle can be an EV”

Confirmed. My wife ended up driving the ICE once every 2-3 months with an 84 mile Leaf as her primary vehicle. Data from Chevy Volts trip lengths confirms this is typical.

There are exceptions though. People with high levels of anxiety and insecurity might be better off driving something else.

Dav8or

Agreed. I wish Chevrolet would do a little marketing for the Bolt and illustrate how great it is as the second car, or commuter car. It is not a drop in replacement for all cars, but it is for the commuter car where the household owns at least two cars and has off street parking. This isn’t everybody’s situation, but it is very, very common. In this capacity, a public charging network really isn’t all that crucial. I have owned my Bolt for over a year, drive it nearly every day and have only used a public charger once, mostly just for the novelty of it.

Klaus

As someone who is looking to leave my Bolt for a Tesla in part due to a lack of charging infrastructure, I do still agree with you. For people in the situation you describe, and I believe that’s a large number, it’s a great choice.

xcat

Yup, exactly what I tell folks about our Leaf. We also are in the habit of checking for available charging via PlugShare for any new destination

Nix

Or buy 1 EV and 1 PHEV and drive on electricity 100% of the time for daily driving, and then use gas in the PHEV for road trips. No need to have a dedicated ICE’er sitting around for most people.

The rare exception (like big camper trailer owners) just prove the rule.

menorman

Viable, but most of the PHEV people haulers are still expensive.

SparkEV

This is true. Long distance hauling typically require lots of cargo (eg. camping trip with boat in tow). That ain’t happening with most PHV. Similar cargo PHV are 50% more expensive than gasser (eg. Pacifica vs Pacifica PHV).

menorman

This is a good case to make and it’s also worth pointing out that many people get an EV and realize that it can work for way more than they initially thought it would, which I expect to increase as the different charging networks become more widespread. This is probably because people quickly realize that they prefer the relative calm while driving in the EV, even if it might not be quite as convenient for record-breaking trips as an ICE.

Nix

Get a PHEV. Problem solved.

You never burn an ounce of gas on the vast majority of days you drive much less than 150km. And on the few days of the year you drive over 150km you go to gas stations just the same as your current ICE car.

ga2500ev

Most PHEVs still need a bit of improvement to get to “problem solved”. There are four specific areas of improvement I’d like to see:

1. More all electric range. I believe that the current Volt at 53 miles is the top end. In an ideal world 70-80 miles of AER would take care of well over 95% of
daily trips.

2. DCFC charging ports. It’s a mistake to think that because of ICE backup that the ability to recharge quickly is unneeded.

3. True all electric modes. The Volt is very good about this. Others not so much requiring far too much ICE interventions when unwarranted. Each PHEV should have a button with “No ICE unless battery is completely drained.” Most don’t.

4. More popular vehicle styles. PHEVs are perfect for larger SUV/CUV/pickup styles. Yet their adoption in this space has been slow.

ga2500ev

Ariston

AER 😀

Nix

I agree with the 4th item on your list. We need as many choices in EV’s and PHEV’s as there are ICE cars. Adoption needs to ramp up. A PHEV isn’t an option if it doesn’t exist in the style that is needed. True for EV’s too.

The other 3 items you listed don’t matter when it comes to solving the problem Gabriel Rheault brought up. All PHEV’s will solve his problem of not wanting to have to wait for recharging while on a trip entirely 100% with the ICE powertrain alone. That is true no matter what the electric range is, or the EV charge rate, or if the ICE comes on in mixed driving mode.

Those are all nice things to have, but they have no impact on the ability of a PHEV to continue driving with the ICE engine as long as you want/need just like an ICE car.

ga2500ev

But without the other items it just defeats the purpose of having a plug-in vehicle because for many trips that are not road trips you run out of battery power and are forced to switch to gas. And if there is a continued dependence on gas, then the natural comparison is to standard ICE or a non plug-in hybrid.

It’s tough enough to explain plug-in hybrids as it is. To compound it by essentially forcing continued use of gas on a daily basis just makes it worse.

With a larger battery, fast charging options, and the ability to truly function as a all electric vehicle much of the time, it creates an environment of a BEV, with the convenience of gas for the perceived edge cases.

ga2500ev

Lamata

“Lac of charging stations is the biggest EV Buying deterrent” ……Truer Words Were Never Spoken !….IMHO….If Big Auto were Serious About EV’s …Charging Would Come 1st , EV’s Would Follow…

Bunny

Oh yeah, we all remember all those gas stations that were built and put in place well before the Model T……..not!

Lamata

I don’t remember that at all . BECAUSE I WASN’T THERE ! AND yes ! Ford put up Lots of Gas Stations IMMEDIATELY & Quickly , to SPEED UP the Gas Mobile Transition from Horse & Buggy..As more Gas station popped up , Ford Slowly Sold theirs 0ff & Got Out of the Gas Station Business …SMOKE THAT!

xcat

Steven – this would make for a great article comparing gas station rollout to EV fast charging

Nix

Also the rollout of the Interstate system in the US that was exclusively for the benefit of cars/trucks. No horses allowed on interstates. States and Fed’s have spent trillions on interstates that could only be used by ICE car and truck owners for decades, even long before every family owned a car. Spending a tiny fraction of that amount, even before everyone owns an EV is not that different,

Ed

I think that what this really shows is that most consumers don’t know how many and where the chargers are. Every time that I talk about it with someone, they know of no nearby chargers, but then I whip out PlugShare and show them just how many there really are.
This weekend I was out of town with a new Model 3 and folks were asking about charging. I told them where the Supercharger was, in the middle of a major shopping parking lot, and not a single one had seen it, although they had passed by dozens of times.
Putting large billboards up would help 🙂

Lou Grinzo

Strongly agree. Publicizing chargers is one of the rare times when I wish corporations would do more greenwashing.

menorman

No one knows where anything is until it’s suddenly relevant to them. It’s like when someone gets a new car then suddenly notices them EVERYWHERE while they swear to have never seen them before.

SparkEV

True for Tesla where each site has multiple handles. But for other EV, especially CCS cars, there’s typically one one handle per site that’s shared with Chademo. Free chargers clog them up all the time. This is why I do not recommend any CCS/Chademo cars to people.

ga2500ev

Electrify America is changing the landscape on that situation in terms of charging speed (150 kW minimum), available chargers (4 per site minimum), and hopefully reliability.

And generally charging availablity isn’t as black and white an issue as say a gas station for ICE. Most current EV drivers use home or work electricity as this primary refueling mechanism. So the DCFC charging interface isn’t crucial unless it’s the primary charging interface for a particular driver, or unless road trips are very high on that driver’s list of priorities. If one charges at home/work 350 days a year, it is a debate as to whether the remaining 15 days of charging opportunities are so crucial as to keep from buying the vehicle.

I know for many, even one inconvenient situation for the duration of ownership makes a purchase a non starter. I’ve given up trying to convince such folks. But for reasonable people who may be willing to trade the benefits for occasional inconvenience, it’s at least worth discussing the charging usage patterns.

ga2500ev

SparkEV

One inconvenience? It’s close to 100% chance that one must wait at DCFC. There’s always some free charging car tapered down to hell less than L2 rate and making everyone else wait. With Maven ridesharing Bolts getting free charging up to an hour, situation got a whole lot worse.

ga2500ev

I guess I just haven’t seen the same in Georgia. The electric company here has placed nearly a hundred 50 kW DCFC stations all around the metro Atlanta area. It is one handle (dual CCS/ChaDeMo) per station. I think I’ve seen exactly one EV charging at the DCFC, which is currently charging $0.25 USD/min to charge.

But I attribute that to the fact that most EV folks now charge at home as the primary, and so only use DCFC on irregular basis.

I hope that a mid power, moderate cost, DCFC charging infrastructure pops up. More stations, with more handles, with the idea of opportunity charging while parked instead of charging as a specific activity.

ga2500ev

Klaus

I think it may come down to the number of expected edge cases and amount of inconvenience to get an ICE car when needed.

ga2500ev

The tougher jobs is changing the mindset from what I call the “gas station model”. Now when asked, I ask folks to take out their cell phone and ask them where do they charge it and how long does it take. Some are actually enlightened.

ga2500ev

Lamata

Most are unmarked and placed in some the most obscure locations …

CCIE

I agree. Need multi-charger CCS installs at least every 25 miles along interstates. That, along with an increase in charging speeds, should fix most of the range anxiety and charging inconvenience issues. Once people know they can easily find chargers and recharge in 10 minutes, EVs can become mainstream in the US. Do I see it happening soon…nope. Maybe in 10 years.

David

Too bad the charger standard wars in place. Three incompatible standards. CHAdeMO had the head start and most broadly deployed, CCS far behind seems to have more support but it hard to tell if its more than just talk. Tesla Supercharger network is the only usable network. Its low cost, placed in good locations intended for long distance travel and charges MUCH faster (3x) than the others making it the only one that truly supports long distance travel.
I think sales speak for themselves. Teslas, despite costing 2-3x the price of the LEAF or Bolt are outselling them. I think the availability of charging for Tesla and lack of charging for Bolt or LEAF is a significant factor. LEAFs hideous battery life is also a serious detriment to that vehicle.

CCIE

I’m not sure what country you’re in. In the US all newly introduced or announced EVs/PHEVs are using CCS. Once Nissan accepts that Chademo is dead here, and converts the Leaf, that will be the final nail in its coffin.

ga2500ev

I believe this still puts way too much weight on long distance travel charging. Sure it’s necessary. But few drivers have multi-hundred mile road trips on a regular basis.

Home/work charging infrastructure is paramount. Followed by DCFC opportunity charging where folks tend to park their cars. Both are lacking and need to be filled in to complete the charging infrastructure necessary to fuel the expansion.

ga2500ev

CCIE

If you could “refuel” in ten minutes within a reasonable distance from your house, home charging is no longer a necessity. Everyone understands the gas station model. EV Charging needs to improve to the point where that model is practical. Until then regular people will worry about charging even if they don’t regularly drive 300 miles.

ga2500ev
There’s no way to refuel in 10 minutes at a reasonable price. To do so takes both a large battery in the car (to handle the charge) and an extreme amount of power. So the car will cost more, and the cost to charge that car will be more expensive than gas. Just because it’s a model that everyone understands doesn’t mean that it’s the right model moving forward. Electricity’s advantage is that is can be, and generally is, delivered everywhere. So instead of trying to bring a car to the electricity, as in the gas station model, you bring the electricity to the car. Cars are generally parked more than 20 hours a day. Even if not charging at home or work, there are likely several hours of the day that the car is parked somewhere where it can be charged without impacting the schedule of the driver. All that’s missing is a cost effective way of delivering power to those locations. Places like grocery stores, malls, gyms, restaurants, and the like. More lower power, yet flexible delivery DCFC, can handle the load cost effectively without forcing the driver into a “you are parked to charge, when you finish… Read more »
David

Agreed. Thats the biggest advantage and moat that Tesla has and why its hard for any other vehicle to be taken seriously no matter how good it might be.

Nix

These are basically the same polling results that Tesla saw over a decade ago, and decided they had to actually tackle that issue head-on for the transition to EV’s to be successful. Tesla didn’t just rely on others to build out chargers based on where those companies thought they could make the most profit on each charger placement, regardless of whether it created a cohesive network or not.

Tesla built out a network designed specifically to tackle this fear, through building a coordinated network of locations specifically designed to eliminate charging fears. Now the oddball rare story of having a problem charging to get somewhere in a Tesla, is the exception that proves the rule.

CCIE

I agree that Tesla’s supercharger network is a major advantage for them. But, proprietary charging has long-term issues. What if every car manufacturer 100 years ago had decided to build-out gas stations using proprietary nozzles that only worked with their cars?

We need a single standard within each country/region, otherwise their is massive duplication of effort. At least it seems like Chademo will go the way of the Dodo in the US.

David

Thats fine, but its not happening. In every important way, non-Tesla chargers are seriously lacking:
– They cannot charge fast enough.
– They are too expensive to use. Often more expensive than gas.
– They are not located in reasonable places. They need to be along interstates at places where you can stop for a while to eat or shop.
– They have insufficient number of stations. Having a single charger in a location isn’t practical compared to a Tesla supercharger with 10-15 bays.

ga2500ev

What you describe was the Tesla SC network 5 years ago. Look at it now. Electrify America plans to deliver much of the same infrastructure in about half the time. Specifically:

1. Chargers at 150 and 350 kW of power.
2. Cost is $1 connection fee and $0.30/min of charge.
3. Planned locations along interstates generally in places where there are shopping and eating opportunities.
4. 4-10 chargers per location.

And unlike Tesla using standardized charging interfaces that any car can use, instead of just Teslas and a standard credit card interface so that you don’t have to have a membership, or RFID, or phone app to use either.

So while I admit that it’s a nacent network with less than 10 locations at the current time, the EA network shows potential to service the rest of the EV universe in terms of travel charging in the near future.

ga2500ev

CDAVIS

Required for mass EV adoption:

Access to a convenient and reliable fast charge network for those without a home charger and for those with a home charger that take occasional long distance trips.

Currently only one car maker provides that.

Hopefully more to follow…

menorman

…Nissan? Or is that BMW? Both of them provide buyers of the respective EVs two years of free charging without requiring them to get a hookup.

SparkEV

That 2 years of free charging (or 1 year with BMW certified used) is what’s stopping people from transitioning to EV. With one or two chargers per site, they are always occupied with free chargers using them at 3 kW (out of 50 kW). Free charging is dooming EV adoption.

Free charging SUCKS!!!!!

CDAVIS

@ said: “…Nissan? Or is that BMW? Both of them provide buyers of the respective EVs two years of free charging…”
————-

Neither of those two car makers offer EVs that have access to a “convenient and reliable” fast charge network.

… go fish

menorman
People of course hate being told what to do, but this is a great example of a situation where their ignorance is the biggest issue. I suspect that most people will not notice charging infrastructure unless it literally looks like a gas station. Much of it most definitely does NOT and never will, so the vast majority of people will never see the chargers because that’s not what they’re looking for, even if the number of them increased tenfold. Instead, what will get people into the electron life is exposure to an EV via a coworker, family member, friend, or neighbor. As it is, we’re on the cusp of a breakout in sales as more models with decent range ratings in all kinds of segments are hitting the market. Getting more of them out would be a bigger boon to sales than getting more chargers, so put the charger money into lower MSRPs instead. It’s also worth pointing out that in 2017, total plug-in sales in California were over 5%, with that amount being split about evenly between BEV and PHEV. But for 2018, with so many new models hitting the streets and the gas prices as high as they… Read more »
DL
I still have 2014 Spark. Much as i loved it over the years, I do get somewhat annoyed lately. The range is down to 70 miles. Article is right. It would seem here in Bay area there’s plenty of CCS charging by now. The catch is they all are 1 or 2 stalls locations. (I know only one location of 8 ccs in redwood city, wow.) This is the root of the problem (for me). This is a chicken and egg problem. I don’t visit the CCS because i won’t go if there’s even a 30% chance i won’t get a free spot immediately (and most have much higher chance during the day time). And I guess they are not getting expanded because of perceived lack of need. As a result, i rarely decide to take spark out knowing i’d need to charge up on the way, unless it is via that 8-stall location in Redwood city. And that’s a big turn off. If it were 5-6 stalls at least in each case (at least to match regular gas stations), i would’ve felt much more confidence in getting a spot. So it’s not just # of charging stations, but probably… Read more »
ga2500ev

This is exactly why the charging model needs to change. There’s no way to model the gas station model with electric cars because of the difference in refueling times.

This is why we need to continue to move towards the “charge while parked” model where instead of having charging stations modeled after gas stations, that charging occurs in the places where EVs are parked: home, work, shopping, gym, movies, malls, restaurants, and the like. And instead of the L2s that are out there, most of these should be DCFC spots, though at a lower charging power than DCFC travel chargers.

I posit that 2 DCFCs (even at 20-24 kW) and 2 L2 in every parking lot would go a long way towards changing the charging landscape.

ga2500ev

Tom

How large was the sample size and how was the survey conducted, i.e., what demographic mix of the population was it most likely to sample? How exactly were the questions framed? Without such information it is not so useful.

MM

“Hybrid batteries bad for the environment”. Hmmmm. There is a very small, tiny grain of truth to that. Are not most batteries reused instead of recycled? The mining for them is clean when done somewhere regulated, and it’s done once, not mined and burned every week like gas is for the average car. To me, this speaks to the success of a misinformation campaign from the usual suspects. On the range issue, for 4 years with an 84 mile range Leaf, and a pounding 40 mile commute, we plugged in every night. Now we’ve retired with the 30 kw version, there are many times we’ll go 4-5 days without plugging in, more of a problem for me is my weekly 200 mile round trip to the relatives.
I have to time it just right or have an hour wait for a charger, my need is for more highway infrastructure. A victim of our own success.

Jiri Räsänen

“He who controls EV charging, controls the EV business.”
Thus…
https://www.invesdor.com/en/pitches/906

Jiri Räsänen

50% of the EV sales drops dead right in the start because lack of charging opportunity at home.