European CCS (Type 2 / Combo 2) Conquers World – CCS Combo 1 Exclusive To North America

JAN 23 2018 BY MARK KANE 55

Opel Ampera-e with CCS Combo 2 in Europe

The CharIN group recommends a harmonized CCS connector approach per each geographical region.

The Combo 1 (J1772) will be, beside some exceptions, found only in North America, while nearly the entire rest of the world has already signed to (or is recommended to) Combo 2 (Type 2). Japan and China of course always go their own way.

Chevrolet Bolt EV w/Optional CCS Combo 1 (J1772)

The Combined Charging System (CCS), as the name indicates, combines different charging methods – AC and DC into single connector.

The only problem is that it was developed far too late to have CCS become the default format for the entire world out of the gate.

North America decided to use a single phase SAE J1772 connector for AC, while Europe opted for the single and three-phase AC Type 2. To add DC charging capability, and save backward compatibility, two different CCS connectors were developed; one for North America, and the other for Europe.

From this point, the more universal Combo 2 (which also handles three-phase) seems to be conquering the world (only Japan and China doesn’t support one of two versions in some way).

There are four major public DC fast charging standards right now:

  • CCS Combo 1 – North America (and some other regions)
  • CCS Combo 2 – most of the world (including Europe, Australia, South America, Africa and Asia)
  • GB/T – China
  • CHAdeMO – present globally and kind of monopoly in Japan

CharIN recommendation: A harmonized connector approach per geographical region facilitates EV market uptake

“Whereas in Europe the CCS Type 2 /Combo 2 connector is the preferred solution for AC and DC charging, in North America the CCS Type 1 / Combo 1 connector prevails. While many countries already integrated CCS Type 1 or Type 2 into their regulatory framework, other countries and regions, did not pass regulations supporting a specific CCS connector type yet. Therefore, different CCS connector types are used in the different world regions.”

In order to speed up the market uptake, cross-border travel and charging for commuters, deliveries and tourists as well as interregional trade of (used) EVs must be possible. Adapters would cause high safety risks with potential quality issues and do not support a customer friendly charging interface. CharIN therefore recommends a harmonized CCS connector approach per geographical region as outlined in the below map:

Benefits of the Combined Charging System (CCS):

  • Maximal charging power up to 350 kW (today 200 kW)
  • Charging voltage up to 1.000 V and current greater 350 A (today 200 A)
  • DC 50kW / AC 43kW implemented in infrastructure
  • Integrated electrical architecture for all relevant AC and DC charging scenarios
  • One inlet and one charging architecture for AC and DC to allow low overall system costs
  • Only one communication module for AC and DC charging, Powerline Communication (PLC) for DC Charging and advanced services
  • State of the art communication via HomePlug GreenPHY enables integration V2H and V2G

Categories: Charging

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55 Comments on "European CCS (Type 2 / Combo 2) Conquers World – CCS Combo 1 Exclusive To North America"

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Back when this area used to have both 60 HZ and 25 HZ electric power (In the 1800’s losses were lower as it was cheaper to transmit, and the generator water turbine turned slowly) – I used to joke that the way the whole region was, was as built with 25 HZ and only that ‘unproven’ 60 HZ did things differently.

This article is like that. THE ONLY country that is going to matter how things are done is


Doesn’t matter what the rest of the world does. Most ev’s will ultimately be sold in china so they’re the ones who are going to be driving changes.

Even with supposedly just the “Type 2” standard, Europe manages to muddy the waters by having an assortment of different ev plugs for every country, the same way as they can’t agree on attachment plugs for large appliances or table lamps even though the electricity used throughout Europe basically has the same characteristics even if used for domestic distribution.

What do you mean by “assortment of EV plugs for every country”?

The French and the Italians also have a different plug, but these are going to dissapear quite soon in the grand scheme of thins. Because Europe mandated Type-2 for new registrations.

Hence the new Leaf has Type-2 and Chademo since it’s a 2018 model. Ofcourse manufacturers are free to install a Chademo port, the only requirement is Type-2, and the fast charging part is not mandatory.

France and Italy have the same plug as everyone else on the car side. It is type 2 + optional CCS for fast charge.

The different plug thing is for the wall-side of the cable, it is used on charge points without pre-installed cable. (non-fast charge points)

The Leaf has always had Type-2 and Chademo.

Nope, the Leaf has always had Type-1 and Chademo.

But since the European standard type-2 is a superset of type-1, it has always existed Type-2 -> Type-1 cables that allows cars (like the Leaf) to connect to type-2 wall plugs.

The new 2018 Leaf will have a type-2 plug though….

It’s just as well that Australia and New Zealand are going with Combo 2, because the latch on Combo 1 is a weak spot since it broken the charger will not function. And, the latch has to be made of some kind of plastic, not metal.

I broke a plastic latch on a type 1 by accidentally stepping on the cord. Metal latches can bend of dropped. The type 2 can have problems with the lock as well.

I once borrowed and used a CHAdeMO adapter for my Tesla and it seemed almost comical the difference in size between the two connector types… the CHAdeMO is a massive beast.

Does anyone know why the connector for all four major public DC fast charging standards are bulky & cumbersome instead of compact & elegant like Tesla’s connector?

… Is there a technical driven reason or just a difference in approach of aesthetic/ergonomic design?

Tesla values aesthetics over insulation?

@Dan said: “Tesla values aesthetics over insulation?”

Are there any reports of people getting shocked at Tesla Superchargers?

There have been several instances of severely overheated cable with the Tesla port.

Maybe hot, but not overheated!

There have been some plugs melting and plastics getting soft at superchargers. Not joking.
As Mennekes (Company who developed the Type2 plug is quite experienced and a technological leader, i believe there are reasons for its bulkiness. Maybe safety, maybe lifetime, maybe simply robustness.

Except real world experience proves this wrong. CCS chargers around here are _constantly_ broken. Even worse than CHADEMO. They are very unreliable in the field, usually because of the latch breaking.

Where is “here” for you? I guess you mean the Type 1?

@ClarkCote said: “There have been several instances of severely overheated cable with the Tesla port.”

It was reported that Tesla a while back fixed the over-heating issue by upgrading the cables to liquid cooled and that other charger manufacturers will likely follow Tesla in that direction:

“We’ve heard about liquid cooled Tesla Superchargers (see video below) a year ago, and we believe it’s just matter of time until we see it in use for all high-power chargers as a necessity”

It’s my understanding that the CCS plug was designed to support charging for up to 1000VDC. I believe Tesla’s current design is limited to 500VDC.

Not aesthetics but usability! Chademo is cumbersome to use for many people.

These bulky CCS or Chademo connectors are future proof and can support 1000 V and 350+ A while keeping full backwards compatibility.

Tesla just failed by introducing different NA connector. No compatibility even with their own EU connector. As typical for beginner engineers, they invented something new and “better” without even checking what and why is already done in the world.

It is much better to have one imperfect standard than 6 incompatible “standards”. Now you have one more stumbling block for BEV adoption, as if they didn’t already have too many stumbling blocks.

I’m sure Tesla can go to higher power outputs with their plug. Also, IMO it really doesn’t matter that the U.S. plug is different that what Tesla uses in Europe. There’s hardly going to be enough cars imported from one continent to the other to even matter.

And that Big Bridge across the Bering Straight is not even started construction yet, so a Cannon Ball Run from New York City to Abberdeed is a long war off!

So also, is it a long time before they build the Briges to connect Great Britain with Iceland and to Greenland and to North America!

And there we have another “expert”.

When Tesla started working on the Model S and the Supercharger network (back around 2010) they aimed for 90kw charging. But at that time Chademo was only 50kw. The people that were in charge of it probably would never have extended it only for Tesla. And CCS did not exist at all! So not they were the ones to “introduce a different connector”

It’s not a bug, it’s a feature.

Tesla intentionally chose to use an incompatible connector so they would have an alibi for refusing to allow non-Tesla owners to use the SC network.

@zzzzzzzzzz said: “As typical for beginner engineers, they [Tesla] invented something new and “better” without even checking what and why is already done in the world.”

Tesla has a large very talented engineering team… yes many of these engineers are young with fresh innovative ideas in their heads… they have been given clear direction by Elon Musk not to constrain themselves to past norms.

Result: Tesla is leading the EV Revolution.

What do you mean “they invented something new and “better” without even checking”? They were already selling Model S cars before the CCS connector even existed.

Only the CHAdeMO connector already existed.

Future-proofing. The existing CHAdeMO connector is good for 150kW.

on a side note – I guess mostly only Tesla owners are aware that Tesla managed to adapt the Type 2 connector format to accept both high power AC and DC charging in the same car connector. For me, this is one of the most effective demonstrations of the calibre of their engineers. It is such an elegant solution.

For 3 phase high-power AC charging, the Type 2 pin arrangement is conventional L1, L2, L3, N & E (plus the CP & PP pins). For Tesla SuperCharging earth is earth but 2 of the other main pins are used for +ve DC and the other 2 for -ve. The car then figures out what is connected to the car’s charging socket and utilises the appropriate charging system.

I gather this allows room for even more power than the current 125kW SuC output, which is going to be fine for cars for a while yet.

Martin Winlow:
“I guess mostly only Tesla owners are aware that Tesla managed to adapt the Type 2 connector format to accept both high power AC and DC charging in the same car connector. For me, this is one of the most effective demonstrations of the calibre of their engineers. It is such an elegant solution.”

Low power DC over Type 2 (without extra 2 CCS pins) was part of standard. Tesla increased power by pushing physical limits to the edge, and made it incompatible by using different negotiation protocol.

It is what distinguishes smart young hacker from proper experienced engineer. Hacker can make smart hack, and make it sort of work and keep in the air for this moment. Engineer should have wider view – understanding about “boring details” like consequences for future development, scaleability and compatibility.

Seems to me the young “inexperienced” engineers that are willing to throw legacy convention out the window are the inovation change agents that are refactoring how things are done and some old-school engineers are upset about that.

Guys, the first Tesla port came out before the CCS standard was finalized. Tesla is part of the CCS work groups and provided their experience working with the Tesla connector to the working group and provided feedback on the final design.
They will eventually move over to type 2 CCS but right now their network is the de facto standard so there is no reason to switch. When the industry standard become dominant they will adopt it. This is pure business. Charging connectors are not a sustainable competitive advantage.

Tesla Superchargers have a much higher reliability than SAE/IEC standard. Much of that is due to dedicated maintenance teams, but the communications/control design is much simpler and more reliable, not to mention less expensive. Tesla uses something on the order of a dial-up modem, but even simpler. SAE/IEC uses a radio modem like in a mobile phone. I do not see how that adds value and it has led to many incompatibility problems.

CCS is a disaster in Australia right now. BMW brought type 1 CCS i3, so all the older stations were cabled with type 1. But all the new stations are being put in as type 2 CCS, so i3 owners are cut off until BMW can change their inlet ports.

It’s great, common sense has prevailed, whinge to BMW/Audi/Porsche etc to put the correct ports on their cars.

Australians predominately buy
Outlander Phev
Tesla S&X

Neither is CCS anything

Very very few DC CCS cars here.

Why buy an i3 instead of CPO Tesla?
Why buy an i3 REX instead of much more useful real SUV Outlander PHEV?

Try to think bigger…

“Try to think bigger”

Yes, try to think bigger than those short-minded people thinking that absence of Bering bridge makes standards irrelevant.

Australia drives on the same side of the road as Japan, UK, India and is closer to Japan than US. They import cars from Japan, EU, other countries and isn’t huge market.

Many of developing countries are supplied by second hand auto imports. How exactly the mix of 6 “standards” to charge is going to help?

I don’t know the Australian grid, but the main difference between Type-2 and Type-1 is that Type-2 allows for 3-phase charging, effectively tripling the charge speed. But if you only supply 1-phase AC to your homes, you can not take advantage of the Type-2 plug.

The other (slight) advantage is that the Type-2 plug is a bit more rugged.

The old wisdom in hindsight problem. At the time, Type1 loooked like it might take off, for non-Teslas. It didn’t. However, it is very feasible to have an adapter or converter – I have Type 1 at Home on my single phase 7kW EVSE, but a 22kW Type 2 EV. I have invested in converters. It’s not that difficult. (I can also get my EVSE cable to have a Type2 plug swapped onto it, by an electrician.)

Only a matter of time before Tesla converts to CCS.

I would be *very* surprised if the M3 doesn’t have a CCS inlet by the time it launches in Europe.

Then the M3 could charge a both Tesla superchargers *and* the new high-speed CCS stations.

Reply to EVShopper said: “Only a matter of time before Tesla converts to CCS.”

Or more likely Tesla will make a CCS connector adapter same as they have done for public connectors SAE-J1772 and CHAdeMO.

The CCS seems like the agreed upon standard from most major car manufactures. Hopefully eventually DC Fast charging becomes standardized for the benefit of consumers.

As for that proprietary Tesla plug in North America (Europeans get a standardized Type 2 in its place), please hurry up and disappear.

Yeah, no. TSL-02 FTW! 🙂

Actually I wouldn’t mind if Type 1/Combo 1 also disappears in NA and is replaced by Type 2/Combo 2 with 3-phase power, but we know that is quite unlikely.

It might happen for heavy vehicles, but not light duty passenger cars. Europe puts three phase power into people’s homes, but North America doesn’t.

It is very likely that Tesla will have more cars on the road than all “major car manufactures” combined in 2-3 years. I bet that charging infrastructure builders will simply start installing Tesla plugs on their chargers because of all the M3s that will be everywhere very soon!

Removing a plug isn’t a good solution.
Once a plug has been used once, you’re stuck with it for the lifetime of the car and you can’t change the infrastructure without harming people who already own the cars.

The only possible exit solution is to add both plugs to the new cars and make the new charge spots use the newer format.
Existing users can still use the current infrastructure (and maybe have at least one compatibility outlet per charge spot ?)
New users can charge everywhere.

There is plenty of room on Tesla cars to add the combo plug. Just keep the current plug on the left side and use the right rear tail light for the other plug.

type1 is compatible with type2 , the main difference is that type2 allows 3 phase so is possible to use an adaptor to charge a type1 car from a type2 , while to me the current best technical solution is the European tesla plug ( type2 for both DC and AC) on the long term the type2 combo offer more room.
type1 combo just don’t make sense because is missing second and third phase

lol…this is another reason why folks will delay switching to electric cars.

Per the Headline “European CCS (Type 2 / Combo 2) Conquers World – CCS Combo 1 Exclusive To North America” see the article: “CHAdeMO – present globally and kind of monopoly in Japan”

It seems to me that CHAdeMO is the only single format Global Standard of Plug and Power Management! No matter that it is big and ugly!

How about, Tesla USA changes to EU Type 2?
(SCs and cars)

Tesla never supported J1772 Type 1 anyway…

That would make zero sense. Tesla has by far the best charging network in North America with their proprietary plug, and the non-Tesla infrastructure going in now is dual CCS Type 1 and CHAdeMO. A US Tesla with a CCS Type 2 port would be literally unchargeable.

With the publishing of SAE J3068, the physical Type 2 connector is now the recommended 3-phase connector for North America!

Chargers can support multiple protocols and plugs. That’s not the challenge. The challenge is bringing down car prices and improving charging rates. Do that and it’ll be as much a problem as having diesel, gasoline, and multiple fuel grades on each pump at a gas station.

Many of these comments sound like they are from people who think we should still be using 25 pin parallel printer port cables instead of USB. There is a lot of innovation coming, and it is possible that none of the charging plugs in use today will be around in ten years. It is called progress. Get used to it. You might like the results. Or maybe you are just too old and grouchy?

“, found only in North America, while nearly the entire rest of the world has already signed to (or is recommended to) Combo 2 (Type 2). Japan and China of course always go their own way.”

A rather bizarre statement implying the US, China and Japan are somehow not major parts of the EV scene.