CHAdeMO Officially Recognized as International DC Charging Standard by IEC

MAR 18 2014 BY MARK KANE 28

Map of CHAdeMO chargers in Europe: there are 1072 of them on the continent & 3605 globally

Map of CHAdeMO chargers in Europe: there are 1072 of them on the continent & 3605 globally

CHAdeMO Association announced a major milestone as the CHAdeMO protocol is now officially recognized as an international DC charging standard by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) alongside Combo plugs for U.S. and Europe and Chinese GB/T plug.

“Since 2009, following the commercialization of the new generation of EVs that were fast chargeable using the innovative CHAdeMO technology, CHAdeMO Association members have been taking an active role in the IEC technical committees 61851-23, -24, as well as 62196-3 in order to drive the consensus approach of international standardisation. After 4 years of expert meetings, in January 2014, the FDIS (final draft international standard) for 61851-23 and -24 were approved by the committees and were finally published on the IEC website yesterday.”

Both IEC documents can be found and bought here for €290.- and €190.-

IEC 61851-23:2014, gives the requirements for d.c. electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, herein also referred to as “DC charger”, for conductive connection to the vehicle, with an a.c. or d.c. input voltage up to 1 000 V a.c. and up to 1 500 V d.c. according to IEC 60038. It provides the general requirements for the control communication between a d.c. EV charging station and an EV. The requirements for digital communication between d.c. EV charging station and electric vehicle for control of d.c. charging are defined in IEC 61851-24.”

IEC 61851-24:2014, together with IEC 61851-23, applies to digital communication between a d.c. EV charging station and an electric road vehicle (EV) for control of d.c. charging, with an a.c. or d.c. input voltage up to 1 000 V a.c. and up to 1 500 V d.c. for the conductive charging procedure. The EV charging mode is mode 4, according to IEC 61851-23. Annexes A, B, and C give descriptions of digital communications for control of d.c. charging specific to d.c. EV charging systems A, B and C as defined in Part 23.”

Tesla inlet in Europe (AC and DC function)

Tesla inlet in Europe (AC and DC function)

So now we have 3, or rather 4, different systems – Japan (System A), GB/T by China (B), COMBO1 by the US and COMBO2 by Germany (C) – plus another two from Tesla (different plug in U.S. and Europe), which will require from automaker to produce plug-in vehicles with different DC inlets for different markets:

  • In U.S. there is CHAdeMO and Combo1 plus dedicated Tesla plug.
  • In Europe there is CHAdeMO and Combo2 plus dedicated Tesla plug, but different then in U.S. (based on AC Type 2 connector).
  • In China there is GB/T.
  • In Japan there is CHAdeMO plus maybe some Tesla Superchargers with Tesla plugs in the future.

Hopefully, nobody introduces another type of inlet and plug in Africa, South America and Australia.  There’s more than enough standardized plugs/inlets out there already.

Categories: Charging


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28 Comments on "CHAdeMO Officially Recognized as International DC Charging Standard by IEC"

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How many combo/Minekes are deployed in EU? It’s strange that Tesla went with that onboard. They’re getting a Chademo adapter working for the US, presumably because of the larger installed base (I know the combo deployment is in the single digits versus Chademo that must be near a thousand already).

The Mennekes plug (type2, non-combo) has been chosen as the standard for low power charging by the european commission.We don’t know for sure when each country in the EU will translate the EU directives into local law but it’s just a matter of time before it becomes mandatory on all electric cars.
Tesla chose to use it without waiting so they won’t need adapters, and they improved the plug to allow DC supercharging while maintaining backwards compatibility, which is great.
I wish all other manufacturers could find an agreement with Tesla to standardise this technology and use it instead of using the combo addition.

Like K-lein says, legislation is being drafted to make type 2 mandatory in Europe. It has been in the works for a long time. This is for AC charging and unrelated to CHAdeMO; it was intended to end the international fighting over Type 2 vs Type 3.

The US Tesla socket doesn’t support 3 phase, so going with the same plug was not an option. So Tesla went with the type 2 plug just to future proof the car (since all the AC chargers going forward in Europe will be required to have it)

I’m buying a LEAF and moving to Estonia. Who’s with me? 🙂

Recognizing CHAdeMO as an international standard was long overdue. Now if we can recognize that we need more than a single CHAdeMO station per location it would be really something.

Totally agree it’s overdue. I mean, all of Japan and half of Europe has been blanketed with these for a couple of years now.

As to location, at least in the US Nissan has been installing them in all of its dealerships – at least anywhere there’s been a halfway-sizable amount of Leaf sales. That’s still a single location for small towns, but in metro areas that’s usually at least 3-4 of them.

Of course, public charging along highways needs to ratchet up. Again, it’s halfway-reasonable around here in Pacific Northwest. Not so elsewhere.

I agree. CHAdeMO has it wrapped up by virtue of being the first to market. I actually like the design of Combo 1, but it needed to be released as part of the Level 2 J1772 plug we all know. In waiting several years for Combo 1, SAE let the CHAdeMO horse not only leave the barn, but it’s in the next county by now.

They really don’t. With every American and German car company backing up the SAE standard, Chademo can’t win. The US and German car makers don’t want to pay royalties to Japan and I don’t think a head start by Chademo will change their minds.

We’ll see… At least in the UK the only EV that can drive to Edinburgh from London in 12 hours or less is the LEAF, and that includes the Tesla Model S (at least until the chademo adapter or superchargers arrive). So if you want flexibilty of use in your EV, its a one horse race. It could be years before the BEV i3 can do this, I guess that’s why they had to create a REX version!

Zoe can do it too. With it’s 43 kW AC charger.

Licensing for CHAdeMO and SAE standard documents is similar in costs (a couple hundred dollars). SAE has testing labs in US for certification of Combo1 & Europe (IEC) for Combo2. CHAdeMO has testing/certification lab in Japan.

The majority of the cost is testing and certification, not licensing. As volume of DCFC deployments & number of companies building standard products increases; there is cost savings in sharing testing closer to the production location. Costs for testing are likely 10’s to 100’s of thousands of dollars. The more EVSE deployed, the smaller the percentage of design/certification costs per unit.

Tesla likely has lowest cost per DCFC at this point having close to 100 supercharging station locations with 4-10 stalls at each location. Supercharger EVSE uses a stack of DC charger units based on those installed in the Model S. This means Tesla has built 50,000+ of its DC charger units. (most S’s have 2 units, Superchargers use stacks of 12 units)

“With every American and German car company backing up the SAE standard”

Sorry I had to bite. What do we have, really? GM (compliance car only), VW (not available yet; compliance only?) and BMW. Not Tesla, even though I’d think it’s American.

In the US, not exactly a lot of cars, both now and in the foreseeable future.
As far as I know, none of these companies have any plan to install quick-chargers or contribute to their deployment.

For CHAdeMO, we have, as you’d put it, “every Japanese, American (except GM), French and Korean manufacturer”.

More specifically, in the US: Nissan, Tesla, Mitsubishi, Kia and Zero motorcycles.
(elsewhere, see

The first two manufacture the best-selling EVs in both the US and the world.
All but Zero contributed to the infrastructure. Today in the US there are some 100 times more CHAdeMO QCs than CCS.

Smart is not using Combo, Renault is not using Combo, Peugeot/Citroen is not using Combo, Opel is not using Combo.
Mercedes A-Class will not use Combo.

USA Quick Charge data, sometimes colloquially referred to as “L3”

1. SAE CCS Combo1 “Frankenplug” or “J1772 DC” – approximately 5 in the USA
up to 100kW eventually
EVs compatible with Frankenplug include:

*GM Spark EV – less than 100 cars with Frankenplug capability
*BMW i3 (coming 2014)
*VW eGolf (coming 2014)

2. CHAdeMO – 3605 worldwide, 550 in the USA

up to 100kW eventually, currently limited to 62.5kW
EVs compatible with CHAdeMO include:

*Nissan LEAF – over 45,000 in the USA and over 100,000 worldwide
*Nissan e-NV200 (coming 2014)
*Citroen C-Zero – not sold in USA
*Mitsubishi i-MiEV – over 30,000 worldwide with its variants C-Zero & iON
*Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (coming 2015)
*Mitsubishi Fuso Canter truck
*Peugeot iON – not sold in USA
*Kia Soul EV (coming 2014)
*ZERO motorcycles
*Tesla except Roadster with adaptor

3. Supercharger – 80 stations in the USA, each with 4-8 stalls.
up to 150kW eventually, currently limited to 120kW
EVs compatible with Supercharger include:

*Tesla only, except Roadster – 30,000 worldwide

Fantastic. We should add a few more standards too. By adding more standards, none will be the standard.

/wishing the standards war would just end already.

Anytime you have the right adaptor, it’s a charging win! 😀

What is with the (Japan) aspect? Does that mean it is only recognized as the standard in Japan?

While CHAdeMO was first published with a Japanese standards it can be licensed by anyone. IEC is a European standards body that as added CHAdeMO to its DC Charging standard (61851-23 and -24, which also can be licensed).

Currently to my knowledge there is only one certification facility for CHAdeMO in Japan for testing. There is nothing stopping someone from setting up an independent testing lab; other than operational costs.

Why don’t we forget all this nonsense and just use inductive charging instead?

Is there a standard for that?

Like with any charging method there are advantages and constraints.

For wireless the advantage is no physical connection. Disadvantages are:
– alignment for efficient charging,
– lower kW charging rates (typically less than 10 kW)
– higher installation costs (requires charging coil/pad)

I’ll absolutely pass on inductive charging – ESPECIALLY for something to compete with Chademo which is a DC fast charging standard. There’s no way you could inductively charge that fast. Also consider that inductive charging should produce an AC current on the car’s side of things and this still requires the car’s internal charger to handle the conversion, greatly limiting the charge speed.


Just stop.

An interesting aspect of this either being intentional or not; it makes the cars be “region specific”. Like how they tried to do that with DVD region codes.

I think we still have Blu-ray region codes. You can’t use a USA Blu-ray in Europe unless the distributor made in unlimited, and not many do that.

CHAdeMO isn’t specific to any area. It’s already all over Europe, the US, and obviously Japan, with over 90% of the all quick-charging locations worldwide.

What’s %90 of %0.5 of the vehicle market?

Let’s not kid ourselves, what we now have are several ‘established NON-STANDARD methods’ for DC fast charging.
SAE should have made J1772 & Combo the STANDARD at the same time. Now the so-called ‘governing bodies’ are responsible for an unmitigated MESS!

Maybe we should let all the Great Brains design gas station nozzle standards.

For what is just a first quadrant operation, its beyond silly to have such a mess. And then J1772 isn’t necessarily compatible with other J1772 stuff. What a mess. Another reason for the skeptical public to stay away.