Volkswagen ID.4, one of the hottest new electric cars on the market, is offering quite good charging characteristics for a mainstream model.
In this post we will analyze its fast charging capabilities, using data from the latest test of the 82 kWh battery version by our very own Tom Moloughney at an Electrify America station on a cold day.
UPDATE (March 7, 2021): We updated/corrected some of the numbers (average values), the Average charging power chart, and added a new State-of-charge (SOC) vs time chart.
Charging power vs state-of-charge (SOC)
First, the charging curve. It's quite flat, with a wide SOC window of available peak power (127-128 kW) and a gentle decrease after around 30% SOC.
Between about 70% SOC and over 80% SOC it maintains 65 kW power, after which it drops quickly and fades below 50 kW.
State-of-charge (SOC) vs time
Charging from 20% to 80% SOC takes about 31 minutes.
Average charging power vs state-of-charge (SOC)
The average power when charging from 20% to 80% SOC is 91 kW, which is 71% of the peak value. A very good result.
Charging rate vs state-of-charge (SOC)
The peak C-rate* - charging power in relation to the total battery capacity of 82 kWh - is about 1.56C.
The average C-rate when charging from 20% to 80% SOC is 1.1C.
*C-rate tells us how the charging power relates to the battery pack capacity. For example: 1C is 1-hour charging power (current), when the power value in kW is equal to the battery pack capacity in kWh. 2C would be enough to recharge in half an hour.
Range replenishing speed vs state-of-charge (SOC)
The rate of replenishing range depends on the energy consumption and the energy consumption depends on the use case.
We have EPA range numbers as well as the WLTP range numbers for the European version, so we can see results for various scenarios:
Taking into consideration the WLTP range of 520 km (323 miles) and available battery capacity of 77 kWh, we can assume energy consumption of 148 Wh/km (238 Wh/mile).
The effective average speed of range replenishing when charging from 20% to 80% SOC would be then 10.2 km/minute (6.3 miles/minute).
- EPA Combined range
Taking into consideration the EPA Combined range of 250 miles (402 km), the energy consumption is around 308 Wh/mile (191 Wh/km). The effective average speed of range replenishing when charging from 20% to 80% SOC would be then 4.9 miles/minute (7.9 km/minute).
- EPA Highway range
Taking into consideration the EPA Highway range of 230 miles (370 km), the energy consumption is around 334 Wh/mile (208 Wh/km). The effective average speed of range replenishing when charging from 20% to 80% SOC would be then 4.5 miles/minute (7.3 km/minute).
Depending on whether your use case is more of a gentle driving (WLTP) or rather more of a highway driving (EPA Highway), here is the expected range replenishing speed:
Comparisons with other EVs
Comparison of charging power
As we are still in the process of collecting data, we will compare the ID.4 (82 kWh version) with its older brother Volkswagen ID.3 (62 kWh version), analyzed previously using data released by Fastned.
In terms of the fast charging curve, the shape is very similar but the bigger battery simply can accept higher power:
Comparison of charging rate
Both packs seem to be loaded similarly as their C-Rate results are similar:
Comparison of range replenishing speed
Finally, the range replenishing rate - only for the WLTP test cycle - reveal that the ID.4 replenishes the range faster than the ID.3, despite a slightly higher energy consumption. That's because of the larger battery pack, which allows for faster charging.
Of course, the ID.3 with a similar pack will beat the ID.4 by a bit.
* Some values on the charts are estimated from the data source.
** The ambient temperature during ID.4 test was "in the low 40's (about 5°C)".
*** Temperature of the battery cells might highly negatively affect charging capabilities. We don't have data about temperatures of the battery at the beginning and during the charging process. In cold or hot weather, as well as after driving very dynamically, charging power might be significantly lower than shown on the charts (in extreme cases charging might be impossible until the battery temperature will not return to an acceptable level).