Tesla Patents ‘Pyrotechnic’ Battery Safety Device

Tesla motors pyrotechnic disconnect for battery


Tesla motors pyrotechnic disconnect for battery

When you’re talking about lithium-ion batteries, the word “pyrotechnic” is not usually considered a good thing. But two new patents filing by Tesla shows that it’s not always a scary thing to have such an explosive term connected to your power source. The wording in the filings is, as always, a bit complicated but the takeaway points from patent #20170229266 and #20170229268 (they share similar wording), is that in the event of a crash, the high-voltage battery in an electric vehicle needs to be neutered so that it’s safe for anyone who might come into contact with it. Or, as Tesla says in a filing:

 In demanding applications, the disconnect must interrupt very large currents in a fast and reliable manner. For example, the interruption of large currents has a tendency to create electric arcs, sometimes referred to as arc columns. Since the disconnect is often intended to improve safety of the electric system (by allowing it to be disconnected quickly), it is important that such electric arcs are then managed so as to not create a new hazard or risk further damage. At the same time, it is preferable that the disconnect not be overly complex or involve components that are unduly expensive.

Disconnecting a battery in the case of danger is vital to keep people safe. Tesla says its “pyrotechnic disconnect” can be used in either an EV or in stationary storage. So, how does it work? Well, there’s a housing with a combustion chamber in it, and there’s a pyrotechnic charge inside that combustion chamber and a busbar covering on the outside. When the busbar is severed, for whatever reason, there’s an exhaust port in the housing that lets gas escape so that any electric arc created is suppressed. These arcs can be a problem because they can, “create a new hazard or risk further damage.” With Tesla’s idea here, the electric system can be disconnected quickly, and the arcs can then be managed.

Source: USPTO (1, 2)

Categories: Battery Tech, Tesla

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9 Comments on "Tesla Patents ‘Pyrotechnic’ Battery Safety Device"

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These types of devices have been in use for years on other automobiles. I suppose Tesla was able to patent this only because the battery is higher voltage than the 12V.

This is just the application, not an actual patent, so they might not get it. Of course, Tesla has a tendency to make their EV patents open, so even if they do get it, it might still be available to others.

Toyota had a small explosive disconnect on the first generation Prius high voltage pack. (2001 – 2004 production)

Explosive bolts are a standard thing in the aerospace industry.

I suppose there must be some reason related to engineering why Tesla couldn’t use what’s already available.

Think of it as “an airbag for the electricity”…

Except that it incorporates a gas blast circuit breaker to extinguish the arcing when actuated.

None of this is new.
Patent# 8,362,380 describes a device that uses an initiator cap (“pyrotechnic”) to isolate high current power systems.