SAE Approves Wireless Charging Standard – TIR J2954

MAY 28 2016 BY MARK KANE 26

Audi wireless charging

Audi wireless charging

SAE International announced approval of the “SAE TIR J2954 Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-In/ Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology,”.

Thankfully this decision/proclamation comes well before mass adoption of the tech, unlike in the DC fast charging space where we find a CHAdeMO vs CCS vs Tesla situation.

The SAE TIR J2954 protocol requires the use of the 85 kHz (81.39 – 90 kHz) frequency, and defines four classes/power levels (new higher levels will be added later):

  • 3.7kW (WPT 1) specified in TIR J2954
  • 7.7kW (WPT 2) specified in TIR J2954
  • 11kW (WPT 3) to be specified in revision of J2954
  • 22kW (WPT 4) to be specified in revision of J2954

The documentation will be available on May 31. The standard won’t be officially finalized by 2018, although we think the paper this month will basically set the direction of the tech.

“With wireless charging quickly becoming mainstream for consumer electronic devices in low power applications, standardization is needed for commercialization of high power wireless power transfer (WPT) of PH/EVs.

In order to achieve a basis for the start of commercialization for WPT, it is important to define criteria for safety and electromagnetic limits, efficiency and interoperability targets, as well as a test setup for the acceptance of WPT – all of which is addressed in SAE TIR J2954.

SAE TIR J2954 is the first step in standardization and was developed by SAE International’s PH/EV Wireless Power Transfer committee, established in 2010.”

“TIR J2954 WPT compatible systems have been built by automakers and suppliers and are currently under test with a cross-industry team with the US Department of Energy, Idaho and Argonne National Labs. The test data, first in the bench and later in the vehicle, will be used to finalize the Standard by 2018 to support the roll out of this technology.

For more information about “SAE TIR J2954 Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-In/ Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology,” visit

Jesse Schneider (the Chair of SAE International’s Wireless Power Transfer committee and is the Fuel Cell, Electric Vehicle and Standards Development Manager at BMW North America) said:

Wireless power transfer, using SAE TIR J2954 is a game changer for PH/EVs. This first in a series of documents will enable consumers to simply park their vehicles into spaces equipped with TIR J2954 equipment and walk away without doing anything to charge their PH/EV.

Standardization of both the vehicle and ground infrastructure WPT has started with SAE TIR J2954. The frequency band, safety, interoperability, EMC/ EMF limits as well as coil definitions from SAE TIR J2954 enable any compatible vehicle to charge wirelessly from its WPT home charger, work, or a shopping mall WPT charger, etc. with the same charging ability.

All of this makes it possible to seamlessly transfer power over an air gap with high efficiencies. SAE TIR J2954 WPT automates the process for charging and extends the range for the vehicle customer only by parking in the right spot.”

Categories: Charging

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26 Comments on "SAE Approves Wireless Charging Standard – TIR J2954"

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QUALCOM with their HALO line are leaders in wireless charging.

Hmmm! Really?

As far as I know, Evatran
( )
has been delivering wireless charging products for Leaf & Volt for a couple of years now. They are working on a Tesla focused product too.

I don’t doubt Qualcomm’s
( )
engineering skills for a second. But right now they seem to be playing catch-up, mostly with licensing and deal-making.
Haven’t heard of a Halo installation in the wild yet. (Anyone heard?)

That said, Qualcomm has the resources to become a major player, and they will be getting in at just the right time as wireless charging standards are becoming settled.

It’ll be interesting to watch.

Halo was fitted to the i8 and i3 safety and pace cars used for Formula-E.

That’s about as out in the wild as it got.

This is great news. Wireless charging will be a fantastic boost for the industry. EMF and fire risk can be managed.

Thanks Mark.
Since GM isn’t planning to invest in CCS charging stations to support their upcoming Bolt, I got to thinking maybe they will 1-up Tesla by investing in a wireless infrastructure instead. They, along with most other OEM’s have been working with the SAE in coming up with the standard. It looks like a wireless system may be much cheaper to install and maintain than a CCS/chad system too.


“General Motors’ OnStar Vet To Help Guide Strategy as WiTricity Commercializes the Next Generation of Wireless Charging”

May be a clue here….

GM would pick a less efficient way to charge an EV…

Why are we copying something from the gas age? EVs don’t need nozzle and hose to recharge.

Sumole. Induction charging is horre doualy inefficient.

Nice find! Cautiously optimistic that GM will go all in on EV tech in the next few years…

GM is rolling out a self driving lyft, so the car would need to charge itself like roomba.

I hope they spec/design it right so that they don’t cause interference. Even wired DCFC Chademo wipes out the AM radio, though that’s probably due to PWM switching; poor design? poor shield? don’t know!

With wireless, interference will be far more. At 3kW, 1000 times smaller is still 3W, more than many cell phones emit and trillions of times more than what’s received with radio. Though harmonics will be less, cutting trillions is still tall order.

Very good points.

I’m sure the FCC will be involved.

Well, FCC was (is?) involved in Chademo as well, yet radio still gets clobbered. I think upconverting to 80 kHz without interfering to consumer radios will be a challenge. Had they selected higher frequency (like 60 GHz), it might’ve been easier regarding interference since most radios don’t operate higher (third harmonic at 180 GHz); some military, but nobody cares about them. 😉

Who listens to AM radio?

If you’re a person that spends a lot of time on the road and is interested in sports or politics, AM radio is still quite relevant.

Wireless is a no brainer. Bring it on.

An electric car drives 12000 miles in one year. If the electricity costs 3 cents a mile, then the EV fuel cost is $360 per year.

If wireless charging costs an additional 10% due to charging losses, that adds $36 dollars making the total cost over one year $396.00.

Despite the name “SAE International” is not an international standards body. It’s essentially US-only, with many provisions adopted by Canada as well.
In automotive oils, the various organizaitons have at least harmonized their standards.

Here, it’s worrying not to see any mention of any international standards bodies, or at least the Japanese or European ones, automotive or otherwise…

Unless this was left out of the SAE statement by accident, it means that competing non-compatible standards, like CCS vs. ChAdeMO are actually likely.

Could InsideEVs reach out to the SAE and clarify this?

My plugless System uses 19.5kHz as power transfer. I wonder if the new 7.2kW system for Teslas will be SAE TIR J2954 compatible at 85kHz.
For the Plugless system to work, the car HAS to be coupled to the control panel to be detected by the CP upon arrival, much like coupling a cell phone to a car. So that detection frequency also has to be standerdized but i havent found any detail on that yet.

P.S. Mark, you’re link is dead, i think the right one is

Hey DG1,

Yupe a bit got cut off there on Mark think…thanks for pointing that out! /fixed

But will it do 3 fase charging for the European grid?

Will it do 3-phase charging?

The wireless part could be the same since the electricity has to be massaged prior to entry into the wireless transfer coil.

Assuming 11 and 22kw seems like they are preparing for 3-phase european facilities. Even if they aren’t its a much more trivial decision.

This is a big deal! Now OEMs can offer inductive charging from the factory, and it should be very easy to attach a charging pad to current charging stations.

Actually the cost of standard inductive charger hardware should be less than half of what a multi-standard charging station costs.

Yes, this does indeed seem to be a big deal.

Wireless charging may end up being as disruptive as the electric car itself. Imagine underground chargers filling parking lots everywhere – at the big box stores, at work, or the football stadium, even at Cracker Barrel. Drive around all day charging up as you shop and run errands without ever having to stop, park, and string out electrical cables. Seems much more relaxing to have your car automatically charging while you are in Costco shopping, don’t you think?

Anyone that installs a charger in effect becomes a gas station owner. Ladies will “gas up” at the beauty salon while getting their hair permed and colored. Guys will get a fill-up in the clubhouse parking lot while they are out on the golf course.

As Bloggin says, it may end up being cheaper to install underground inductive chargers than it is to install the above ground charging ports. My math shows it only costs about $35-50 extra per year for wireless, or about three or four dollars a month. That’s just what a single Laté at Starbucks costs.

No big deal. Oak Ridge has already demonstrated 20kW wireless charger. Politics in standards slow down the progress.
ORNL surges forward with 20-kilowatt wireless charging for vehicles …

50kW while rolling in progress.