BMW i3 Battery
Nissan e-NV200 Battery
A peer-reviewed Mineta National Transit Research Consortium report, titled Remanufacturing, Repurposing, and Recycling of Post-Vehicle-Application Lithium-Ion Batteries, suggests that there are three reasonable second-life uses for automotive lithium-ion batteries:
- Remanufacturing for reuse in vehicles by replacing any damaged cells
- Repurposing by reengineering battery for stationary storage application.
- Recycling by disassembling each battery cell and extracting the metals, chemicals and other byproducts to be sold or re-introduced into battery manufacturing process
Charles R. Standridge, PhD, lead researcher of the study, stated:
“Lithium-ion batteries provide efficient energy storage. Their use in vehicles will continue to expand, but we must deal with disposition once they fall below regulatory standards for use in on-road vehicles. To address that challenge, our studies have shown that many of these batteries may still hold a significant charge level and thus have additional economic value that can be reclaimed in one of three ways.”
The study predicts that, by 2035, the number of available post-vehicle-application batteries will range from 1.376 million to 6.759 million. That's a heck of a lot of batteries that will be looking for second-life applications.