New York City Passes Landmark Charger Bill – 20% of Future Parking Spots Required to be Charger-Ready – Potential For 10,000 EV Spots


New York City Gets Charger Ready

New York City Gets Charger Ready

InsideEVs contributor Tom Moloughney tells me he works some 20 hours a day at his restaurant Nauna’s Bella Casa in New Jersey during the holiday season.  For a man who works such long hours, you’d think there’d be no time left to advocate for EVs, right?

NYC Mayor Bloomberg Celebrates Opening of Charging Station

NYC Mayor Bloomberg Celebrates Opening of Charging Station

Well, if that’s what you’re thinking, then you’re dead wrong.

Moloughney found time in his hectic schedule to provide expert testimony in support of a landmark bill that was just passed by the New York City Council.

It’s believed that without Moloughney’s assistance, the bill may have failed.

We’ll get to the details of the bill in a moment, but first here’s an email written by Ari Kahn, Electric Vehicle Policy Advisor-Mayor’s Office of Long-Term Planning and Sustainability:


InsideEVs Contributor Tom Moloughney Gives Expert Testimony in Support of the Bill

InsideEVs Contributor Tom Moloughney Gives Expert Testimony in Support of the Bill

Good news! The New York City Council just passed legislation that makes new parking charger ready, and it would not have happened without your help and expertise.

Intro. 1176 is inspired by London, California, and Vancouver’s efforts and takes advantage of the fact that a surprising amount of off-street parking is being built in New York City. This law will create over 10,000 charger ready parking spots, with an estimated 5,000 in the next seven years alone.

Thanks to collaboration with the construction industry and electrical utilities, Intro. 1176 allows maximum flexibility at minimum cost. Properties can use the capacity to support quick charging, wireless power, or other technology suited to their cars.

This is a major change for New York City, which has slightly less than 200 public charging stations now. Since the majority of our garages and lots are more than forty years old, many have enough power for only basic electrical needs like lighting. On our clean power grid electric cars reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 75% and remove cancer and asthma causing pollution from our streets. Thanks to your help, New York City will now be able to welcome them by the thousands.

All the Best,


Though the email spells out most of the highlights of the bill, we’ll point them out again below:

  • Every new parking lot or garage in NYC has to install conduit and provide the electrical capacity for future EVSEs for 20% of  parking spaces
  • Within 2 years, up to 2,000 parking spot are expected to be charger-ready

    Electric BMWs Tour NYC - Now a Charger Friendly City

    Electric BMWs Tour NYC – Now a Charger Friendly City

  • Within 7 years, up to 5,000 parking spots in NYC will likely be charger-ready
  • End goal calls for 10,000 spots to be charger-ready
  • The building code required the conduit to be installed so that wire can be easily threaded at a later date

Why’s this a landmark bill?  Well, if you were to venture to NYC today, you’d find ~200 chargers in the entire city.  That figure is far too low to support EVs in volume in a city the size of New York. NYC desperately needs more charging stations and the passage of this bill basically guarantees that the chargers are coming soon.  If you’ve got the conduit in place and the electrical capacity is there, then why not install the charger and charge a few buck for the juice it sends out?

If not for the advocacy of people like Tom, we wonder how much would be accomplished in the push to drive up EV adoption.

You can read the bill in its entirety by following the first link below:

Intro 1176

If you’d like to read transcript from the hearing, including the expert testimony put forth by Tom (starts on page 62), then this link will take you directly there.

Testimony Intro 1176

Categories: Charging

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51 Comments on "New York City Passes Landmark Charger Bill – 20% of Future Parking Spots Required to be Charger-Ready – Potential For 10,000 EV Spots"

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I want to point out that I wasn’t the only person there providing testimony, and Ari Kahn who works for the Mayors office was the real driving force behind this. Ari really deserves the credit and I was happy to support him with this.

This is really a great win for the electric vehicles and the people of New York City. We really needed this to help jump start the charging infrastructure here, which is currently woefully inadequate.

This legislation sucks!

The bill states: “This legislation does NOT require installing EVSEs, but requires that the building have electrical capacity to add EVSEs to up to 20% of newly created parking stalls as needed.” Why not require installing conduit for 100% of newly created parking stalls? At a minimum the bill should have required 100% of newly created residential parking stalls to be EV ready.

InsideEVs, thanks for not giving your NYC readers any notice of this “landmark” legislation before it was voted on! I would have liked to have contacted my city councilman prior to the vote to lobby him to amend the bill to require 100% of newly created parking spots to be EV ready. InsideEVs, you’re a day late and a dollar short!

sven: There are currently about 160 public EVSE’s in all of NYC. One of the biggest hurdles in getting more installed is onerous cost of installation for the property management – that plus very few people are actually asking for them. Most public parking lots and garages simply don’t have the electrical capacity to add EVSE’s if they wanted to and even if they do, most times they have to trench through the pavement and concrete to run the supply conduit. This bill will make nearly 1,000 new parking spaces ready for EVSE’s every year moving forward and when that property management decides they need/want to install the equipment it will be very easy and inexpensive to do so. Sure, I’d like to mandate that chargers must be installed everywhere too, but that will only happen in fantasy land. You could never get such a bill passed and would end up wasting your time and resources doing so, while only slowing down adoption. This legislation will lead to thousands of new chargepoints installed in NYC in the very near future, perfectly timed to coincide with the rise of plug in vehicles to use them. Compared to where NYC is now,… Read more »

It would seem to me the way to retrofit existing parking garages would be to run the conduit overhead rather than underneath. But perhaps this is in violation of electrical code? I’d think not because lighting has to be wried overhead, but I don’t think like a New Yorker.

From afar I thought the biggest problem has been laws and regulations forbidding the resale of electricity? They get around that by saying power is included in parking space rent?

“One of the biggest hurdles in getting more installed is onerous cost of installation for the property management”

What?! Tom you obviously misread my post. I said install conduit, not chargers, in 100% of new parking spaces. This law is about requiring new construction to run conduit to new parking spots in garages and parking lots. I said that 100% of new parking spots should have conduit installed, not just 20% of the new parking spots.

This law means that 80% of new parking spaces won’t have conduit installed at the time of construction. Like you said, converting/retrofitting these “80%” parking spaces at a later date to be EV ready would be an “onerous cost of installation for property management.” Why not install conduit to 100% of new parking spaces? Like you said, when “property management decides they need/want to install the equipment it will be very easy and inexpensive to do so.”

Since most people charge at home, I think 100% is a bit much to ask for. How bout 50%?

“I think 100% is a bit much to ask for.”

Really??? This law only requires running conduit without wires in new construction. It does not require require the property owner to actually install chargers, and does not even require that the conduits to the parking spaces be wired!

“Since most people charge at home”

This law covers residential & commercial buildings in NYC. Why not 100% for new residential parking spaces for the people who live in NYC?

About the only really costly thing I see this legislation requiring is “Electrical Capacity”. The Conduit and Fittings part of the job is quite inexpensive, since plastic conduit can be buried in the concrete. The Tees and Pull Boxes would be the most expensive part. If parking for 1000 cars is contemplated and 200 spots are to have the 30 ampere charger provisioned in the photo, thats 6000 amps worth of chargers. The cheapest way to implement this scheme would be to have a Europeanesque 240Y/416 feed, that way only 4 #8’s and 1 # 10 in 3/4″ ducting. Single pole breakers would be all that is required therefore, conceivably only 5 – 600 ampere panelboards (80% rated bussing) would be required for distribution (40 branch circuits for the chargers per panelboard – with 40 – 40 amp 277 volt single pole breakers / panelboard.14 Back at the electric service room, chances are the service in NYC for even new construction will be a nominal 120Y/208 off the 125Y/216 Network System. Since 1440 kw is required for the chargers, 3 – 250 kva auto transformers or a single 750 kva stepup autotransformer (with a ‘1500 kva’ rating) would be required… Read more »

To clarify, using the 240Y/416 scheme in choices 1 & 2 above with 4 -8’s and 1- 10 in 3/4″ means running 3 chargers each of these runs. So 42 chargers out of a panel would require 14 of these 3/4″ pipes.

For choice #3, 6-8’s and 1-10 would be required as would an increase to 1″ to run a minibank of 3 chargers.

Just read the GreenCarReports article:

Apparently, only 3.1 kw will be required per parking spot instead of 6.2kw, (in this case, 15 amps).

So the above example would work for 2000 parking spaces, or else if still only 1000, then 200 cars would be much easier to implement. Also, with a Huge number of cars, a certain demand factor should be allowed, even if its not ‘necessarily’ code. The above examples assume 100% usage.

As Eric said in the story: “The building code required the conduit to be installed so that wire can be easily threaded at a later date.” The law does not require any wiring to be installed at the time of construction. The law requires that appropriately-sized conduit (raceway) be installed and that there is “physical space” for an electrical panel to be installed at a later date.

Here is the text of the law as enacted:

“Parking garages shall be capable of supporting electrical vehicle charging stations in accordance with this section. Electrical raceway to the electrical supply panel serving the garage shall be capable of providing a minimum of 3.1 kW of electrical capacity to at least 20 percent of the parking spaces of the garage. The electrical room supplying the garage must have the physical space for an electrical supply panel sufficient to provide 3.1 kw of electrical capacity to at least 20 percent of the parking spaces of the garage. . . .”

I hate legislation worded like this. Space means different things to an engineer or electrician than it does to the general public. Does this mean equipment must be purchased that has ‘spaces’ for feeders? Or is there a loophole in the Law large enough to drive an EV through? Does this mean that no Panel boards, nor switchboards, nor large main service entrances need to be installed, indeed absolutely nothing needs to be done other than provide piping and a blank wall, and the ‘temporary’ minimal service for the parking lot becomes the only service the parking lot realistically will ever have? If this is so, then the up front cost is indeed very low, since the parking lot will never have to install any charger docking stations ever. All they have to do is say ‘provision’ has been made for a 20% EV penetration, even though only piping has been run. Taking this further, whats to say, assuming a 1000 space parking lot, the piping to the ‘future’ charging docking stations are going to be installed with exposed conduit, and that “space’ has been left for the piping but the piping has never actually been installed. So only the… Read more »

I believe there is as you said a “loophole in the Law large enough to drive an EV through.” I need to ask an architect or real estate lawyer to confirm this though.

Oh, another ambiguity here – although it would assumedly be that the raceway is between the car and the electric room.

I initially thought it was TO the electrical supply panel (taking that literally), not FROM the electrical supply panel in the electric room to the parking spot.

Large Garages wouldn’t be wired this way; there’d be intervening Panelboards (loadcenters) near the actual parking spots to save on running piping all of hell’s half acre.

But if taken literally, perhaps people will mistake which raceways are being talked about as being solely within the electrical room proper.

I think what they MEANT to say was raceways between the ‘electric room’, and the parking spot, hopefully not mandating 400 home runs in a 2000 space garage.

It will be interesting to see if this law is immediately ammended, which I think it almost has to be, to allow architechs and electricians to provide wiring as economically as possible.

“This bill will make nearly 1,000 new parking spaces ready for EVSE’s every year moving forward and when that property management decides they need/want to install the equipment it will be very easy and inexpensive to do so.”

The flip side is “This bill will make nearly 4,000 new parking spaces which are not ready for EVSE’s every year moving forward and when that property management decides they need/want to install the equipment it will require trenching and a very onerous cost of installation for the property management to do so.”

Dude, you’ve gotta recognize that the vast majority of people in the world are nowhere near as enthusiastic about EVs as you are. Rather than taking a dump on the progress we are making, why don’t you applaud the people who are actually on the ground, making things happen rather than commenting on internet blogs. The all-or-nothing attitude of some EV enthusiasts is making enemies, not friends.

On top of that, you rip on the blog for not getting you your free news earlier. The sense of entitlement is astonishing!

You rip me for commenting on an internet blog instead of making things happen on the ground? In my comment I lamented not contacting my councilman before the vote to lobby him to amend the law, because I was unaware of the pending legislation. InsideEVs knew about the pending legislation while it was being debated, yet chose not to write a news story about it until it was a done deal, voted on, and passed into law. I read InsideEVs to get my EV news. It’s a great site, but it’s not perfect. I am disappointed that InsideEVs knew about pending EV legislation that directly affects me, but didn’t report on it until after it was voted on. I don’t have a sense of entitlement, but I do have expectations for this website. Those expectations were not met today.

You call this law progress, I call it greenwashing. It’s obvious that the lobbyists for the real estate developers watered down this bill to the point that developers have to spend only a token sum on conduit and have absolutely no obligation to install any actual chargers.

/couldn’t help myself

…I’m just messing with you sven, (=

Honestly, there is a half dozen or so people writing at the site consistently, and another dozen or so part-time or as contributors – which sounds like a lot I grant you… but there is sooo much proposed city level “green” legislation out there that it is beyond our means to not only become familiar enough with it all, but also to be able to report it competently while also evaluating the probability of one bill ultimately being successful over another – and therefore warranting a story.

I understand Jay. 🙂 This story just really hit a nerve as a colossal missed opportunity.

Tom, my comment was in no way a criticism of you or your tireless efforts to promote EVs. Thank you for all the work you’ve done. 🙂

No problem sven. I still contend this is great for NYC. I understand some of your points, but at the same time I think some are unrealistic. There is no way the city would have passed this if it mandated that 100% of all parking spaces were “EV ready”, and it certainly wouldn’t have passed if it forced the property owners to actually install the EVSE’s. It may look like baby steps, but it is definitely a great step in the right direction.

Well said. Let’s remember that “the best is the enemy of the good”.

Tom, I respectfully disagree. I think there is a huge misconception in this thread about what this new law actually requires. Either I along with Eric Loveday are misinterpreting this law, or everyone else including Bill Howland and yourself are misinterpreting this law. The crux of the issue is whether upgraded wiring and electrical panel boards need to be installed at the time of construction, or whether just a larger raceway/conduit (sans upgraded wring) needs to be installed at the time of construction. Can you please help clear this up for me? The way I read the law it does not require upgraded wiring to be installed at the time of construction. The law requires that a raceway (conduit) to the electrical panel (but not the upgraded wiring) be installed that is large enough to provide a minimum electrical capacity 3.1 kW x # of parking spaces x 20%. The law does not require that electrical panel be able to handle the minimum electrical capacity, but it requires only that there be enough “physical space” to install such a panel in the future. Everyone else is interpreting the law to require installing the upgraded wire, raceway, switchboards, and electrical panel… Read more »

Yeah Jay, I think if my example is examined”

A new lot for 1000 cars (200 – 30 ampere charger docks)

is enough of an expense for a property owner.

Providing 50 or 100% of spaces on this sized lot would be onerous at this point. Maybe sometime in the future when absolutely all cars are electric, then this law may be ammended.


The law does NOT require any wiring to be installed. The law requires that a raceway (sans wiring) be installed that is “capable” of providing the minimum “electrical capacity” (3.1 kW x # of parking spaces x 20%) The law also does not require an electrical panel to be installed, it only requires that the garage must have the “physical space” for an electrical panel that can handle the minimum electrical capacity.

The law also does not apply to the parking lots/garages of merchants (malls, retail stores, and restaurants).

A PDF of the law an enacted can be found at the following link:

Yeah, As I read this text there is a requirement for raceway (say 5000 amps worth) or 13 – 4″ conduits from Consolidated Edison’s demarcation point to the Parking Garage electric service. This distance can be well under 10 ‘ necessitating only 13 pipes total. Seems like only $10,000 worth of piping in the electrical room for the garage only (and granted, it would have to be physically a larger room than necessary.

I don’t see any wiring requirement either. nor do I see any requirements for main switches, switchboards, distribution panels, raceway between all of the above, or even raceways to the charger docks themselves. The only requirement I see is 13 paralleled 4″ raceways, only, with no termination at either end required initially.

Nice! Combined with NY state’s recent decision to allow chargers to be priced by the kWh consumed (versus by the hour), things are looking up for plug-ins in NY state!

NYC is currently well-known for it’s L2 chargers at a rate of .49/kWh.

Likely they will have 10,000 unused chargers if they implement such a pricing scheme long-term.

Very good. But why not 100% of them? It’s just running some conduits (not even the wires). Anyway, a concern of mine is the following (and I would be very happy if somebody shows me it should not be such): I think that, until, in a certain area, ALL parking spots have a charger, they can be very useful for plug-in hybrids (to extend their electric range) but not that game-changing for pure EVs. Because if I lived in an area of a city where some (even 90%, much more so only 10-20%) but not all parking spots had a charger (and, of course, I didn’t have the possibility to charge at home, or at work), that would not be enough for me to feel confident I would always be able to park my car at night in a spot with a charger, and therefor I would not buy a pure EV. I could go for a plug-in hybrid, in case. Wouldn’t that be the same for all of you? Not to speak of non-EV-fans. A different thing would of course be to have a spot with charger reserved to me. That’s what Amsterdam is offering (as far as I… Read more »

“But why not 100% of them? It’s just running some conduits (not even the wires).”

You beat me to the punch. I took me a while to edit out all the explicatives in my post above.

My answer to my question:
“But why not 100% of them? It’s just running some conduits (not even the wires)”.
Because that’s the maximum it could be obtained.
It’s already huge. Congratulations.

No, I’m not happy with this last comment of mine. Congratulations, but I think we should aim at 100%.
And even more: how to make, say, 1,000 new chargers a year translate into 1,000 more NYC dwellers being able to drive an EV. Not at all automatic (see my first comment). How to guarantee an EV buyer he’ll find a charging spot available, when he parks at night. And available not only in the first one or two years, but for more than a decade, no matter how many new EVs will be there by then.
Without that guarantee, I personally would not buy an EV. Same, I believe, for almost anyone.

Condos and Co-Ops need 120V charging. That’s it. Plugs in the wall similar to how a Golf Cart building works at a golf course. Plug in 120V at night and draw 12A overnight for 4-5 miles per hour of charging is going to be a huge potential benefit of growth to NYC dwellers. If you live on Long Island, charge at home and maybe charge at work in a parking garage or a LIR train station. 120V charging should be the heart of their planning. I suspect it will not be.

Bonaire you are absolutely correct, in other words in your world you would require 1.5 kw per Charger Docking Station. This is much easier to provide to a large number of stations than the 3.1 kw mandated by the ordinance.

My feeling is that apartment and condo dwellers country wide would like ANYTHING, which is an improvement over absolutely nothing.

Well, in this ordinance its not just running the pipes. Since “Electric Supply” also has to be considered, you are talking much larger electric service entrances, switchboards (and the required Receiving Bus Room, and switchboard rooms) if you are talking about a large parking lot. See my examples above.

The NYC ordinance apparently is far less onerous than at first blush, since only provision for 15 amp charger docking stations is required, not 30. What do you want to guess the standardized size of a charger docking station is going to be in NYC from now on?

2014… year of the charger

(or maybe that should be “Year of the EVSE” or “Year of Charging”)

It is great to see things finally starting to happen 🙂

Tom hi,

Just read your testimony, or at least the Q&A part with the council member. Really great job!

I don’t think the compliments to you were exaggerated. You gave the “ordinary person, business owner” honest, real-life angle on this that made all the sense in the world for the politicians.

As to 20% vs. 100%: as Alok writes, probably the top you can ask for.

Plus, it’s a cost-effect issue: to get to 20% of the fleet being EVs, you need actual sales to be quite a bit over 20% for quite a few years. Even in the EV hotbed markets out west, we are still only in the 1%-2% range. Realistically we won’t be anywhere near 20% of overall sales for at least 5+ years, quite possibly 10+. In short, equipping 20% of conduits in NYC parking structures for trickle-charge, should be more than enough for the coming 20 years, easily. You can’t really ask people for more than that right now.

Beside that, no need to feed the trollz. Every site has them, even this generally very positive one 🙂

Assaf, are you calling me a troll? I apologize if I came off that way.

I don’t think you understand New York City real estate. The average price of a Manhattan apartment is $2,000,000, while apartments in trendy neighborhoods in the outer boroughs cost just as much. Likewise, new office buildings in Manhattan can cost well over $100,000,000. While an average office building might have over 5,000 workers, it will have only about 200 parking spots in a commercial garage in the basement. Most office workers commute to work by mass transit. This “20% law” applies only to new parking spaces (new construction). Adding conduits to all the parking spaces in a new rental or new office building would literally cost peanuts at the time of construction.

Ironically, gasoline stations across Manhattan are vanishing and being replaced by luxury housing and office buildings.

The conduits cost pennies. The receiving bus room, switchboard room, main service switch(es), switchboards, and panelboards, feeders to the panelboards, as well as the labor to install them, are much more costly.

20% penetration along with 3.1 kw per charger spot seems to be a reasonable compromise in view of your statement that everything costs $Millions in NYC.

(Bill I replied to you above, but in case you didn’t see that post I’ll reply to again.)

No wires, switchboards, or panel-boards are required to be installed.

If you read the law, it says that only thing that must be installed is a raceway (sans wiring) capable of providing the minimum electrical capacity. The electrical room supplying the garage must have the “physical space” for an electrical supply panel that can handle the minimum electrical supply.

Here is a PDF of the law.

Providing electrical capacity for 20% of the parking spots would be huge. Is Con Edison able to do that? Being in the city the ability to built local renewable sources is limited so more supply capacity is needed. One thing is to have one or a couple of 6.6kW charging stations, another is to have a hundred of them.

That said this would also put pressure on existing facilities to build charging capacity if they want to stay competitive without directly mandating it by law.

Interesting times 🙂

Con Ed doesn’t seems to have a problem providing electrical capacity for the 50-plus story office towers and luxury residential towers that are built on top of these subterranean garages.

The law requires these new parking spots to be able to support chargers with a minimum of only 3.3 kW, that is if they are ever installed.

NYC is the only area of NY State that is short electricity at the moment in summertime. The Power Authority has installed ‘temporary’ Gas Turbine generators to pick up the slack. There are proposals to build HVDC lines to the city from upstate, which we upstaters are all against since they’ve shut down almost all our coal fired plants and we are starting to run out ourselves in the summertime.

Overnight charging is not a problem and helps the utility’s bottom line (grid friendly).

Charging during the day will always be to some degree Grid Hating, unless the efficiency of Solar Cells can be made perfect., or there is a colocated gas generator providing the power without taxing the grid.

These problems are likely to be addressed, since EV sales are growing slowly, not suddently appearing out of nowhere. It is important to keep after midnight charging the primary way to charge EV’s whether in parking spaces or garages.

It seems to me that the conduit approach is essentially a foot in the door. It’snot at all clear to me that there will be that many actual EVSEs in place due to this bill alone but it is a start.

Not mentioned in the story is that the law requires that the chargers for these new parking spaces provide a minimum charge rate of only 3.1 kW.

That is a bad decision. There should be allowance for a plethora of 120V 12A charging as an option for many folks like Volt and Leaf owners who do not need 100’s of miles per charging event.

From the commercial perspective, doing this with 110v would limit the V2G I hate to admit will be on the minds of a good many of those installing these spaces.

And another chance to congratulate Tom, as destination charging pays a bigger dividend in a colder place, like NYC. It also will allow hundreds of tri-state area PHEV buyers to shop for less battery capacity.

Nice job, Tom! I’m curious if there were numbers thrown around on average per spot infrastructure?

One of the things I think would help in this kind of policy making is for EV advocates to make reference to hydrogen filling infrastructure, at $2 million each in CA, as states in the MOU pursue the 3.3mm, 2025 ZEV target. I am much less than convinved policy makers “get it” when confronted by expensive all-of-the-above alternative fuels strategies, at the expense of going prime time with what we have.

Tom. Thanks for your contributions to this. We met at a plugin rally down at Rutgers in New Brunswick a few years ago. I don’t know if you heard but the new parking deck adjacent to the train station has chargers built in. We use them all the time when we go there. Meaning to try your restaurant soon too. I know you have a charger installed there too. Regards

My god people. This is a significant accomplishment. Stop complaining! Most people barely know Evs exist. Incredible.