Let’s Look At Fast Charging Curves For Popular Electric Cars

JUL 2 2018 BY MARK KANE 57

How fast is fast? Depends on the car.

Fastned provided a very interesting comparison of DC fast charging curves of several popular electric car models, including the BMW i3, Hyundai IONIQ Electric, Nissan LEAF, Opel Ampera-e and Volkswagen e-Golf.

Let’s take a look at the results, which in general shows that various models and battery pack versions have widely varied charging characteristics.

BMW i3

The BMW i3 was offered in two battery versions – of around 22 and 33 kWh. The higher capacity cells/pack allow it to charge a little quicker (peak of almost 50 kW) and for an extended state-of-charge frame:

  • 22 kWh edition: fast charging until 65%, charging will go slower above this
  • 33 kWh edition: fast charging until 85%, charging will go slower above this

Charging with a BMW i3 (Source: Fastned)

Tips:

  • If the vehicle is switched off for longer than about 5 minutes before a charge session is started, it could be that the vehicle no longer responds to the fast charger. The solution is to switch on the car briefly to ‘wake up’ the vehicle. After that, can you start the charge session again.
  • In case the CCS-plug remains locked in the car, unlock the car with the key. Is the CCS-plug still locked? Then wait a bit until the car releases the plug; this may take a few minutes.
  • While charging you can switch on the car without problems to make use of the climate control.

Hyundai IONIQ Electric

The Hyundai IONIQ Electric (28 kWh usable) is an interesting example, because it’s a rare affordable BEV that is capable of charging at up to 70 kW when connected to a higher-power charger (typical CCS Combo DC chargers were up to 50 kW – below the IONIQ’s potential).

You can replenish 100 km (62 miles) of range in just 15-25 minutes. The charging power significantly decreases above 75% of state-of-charge.

Charging with Hyundai IONIQ Electric (Source: Fastned)

Nissan LEAF

The first generation of Nissan LEAF was available with two battery pack versions – 24 kWh and 30 kWh. The 30 kWh was quite an improvement in terms of charging power capability.

However, the second generation Nissan LEAF with its 40 kWh battery was affected by surprisingly low fast-charging capability, about which you can find under our RapidGate topic. In fact, Fastned shows that the 40 kWh barely exceeds 40 kW of DC power and then power quickly fades after 60% SOC.

  • 24 kWh edition: fast charging until 25%, charging will gradually go slower after this
  • 30 kWh edition: fast charging until 80%, charging will go slower after this
  • 40 kWh edition: fast charging until 60%, charging will go slower after this

Charging with a Nissan LEAF (Source: Fastned)

Opel Ampera-e

The Opel Ampera-e (Chevrolet Bolt EV in North America) has quite special DC fast charging curve as the BMS limits the power of charging in steps. Overall, the power of up to 45 kW is disappointing for the battery size of 60 kWh.

“The charge speed is up to 50 kW at all of our chargers. In the charge curve below you can see the charge speed of the Ampera-e. On average the Ampera-e charges 100 km of range in 20 – 25 minutes. The Ampera-e charges fastest until about 55%. At this point the car will gradually reduce charge speed and as of 70% the car will start charging slowly.”

Charging with an Opel Ampera-e (Source: Fastned)

“Unlocking
In some cases the car does not release the connector. On the car’s remote control you can press an ‘unlock’ button, hold this button for some seconds. This way your car will release the connector. “

Volkswagen e-Golf

The Volkswagen e-Golf was equipped with 24.2 kWh and later with 35.8 kwh battery packs, which like in the case of Nissan LEAF, doesn’t have a liquid cooling system. The switch to higher-capacity cells didn’t bring any improvement in charging power – the results are in fact slightly worse (only the fading part above 80% SOC is better, but it’s also the least important part of the charge).

  • 26 kWh edition: fast charging until 75%, charging will go slower after this
  • 36 kWh edition: fast charging until 80%, charging will go slower after this

Charging with a Volkswagen e-Golf (Source: Fastned)

Tip: If the connector remains locked when charging is finished, you can unlock the connector by using the car keys to lock and unlock the doors. The car will then unlock the connector as well.”

Hyundai IONIQ Electric
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Hyundai IONIQ Electric Hyundai IONIQ Electric Shares A Platform With Other More Conventional IONIQ Versions Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric (in Marina Blue) Hyundai IONIQ Electric  Is One Of Several Plug-In Hyundais Coming Soon Hyundai IONIQ Electric Gets A Boost Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric badging Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue Hyundai IONIQ Electric Marina Blue
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2018 BMW i3s BMW i3s 2018 BMW i3s Deka interior BMW i3 and i3s BMW i3 & i3s BMW i3 & i3s BMW i3 & i3s BMW i3 & i3s BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3 BMW i3
LEAF sales will improve for March, but how much?
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2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF 2018 Nissan LEAF charging inlets 2018 Nissan LEAF charging
2017 Volkswagen e-Golf
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6. Volkswagen e-Golf
Range: 125 miles; 126/111 mpg-e. The Volkswagen e-Golf got a battery boost last year that brings the compact EV hatchback to a more-useable 125-mile range. It’s available nationwide, though like most EVs, you’d have trouble finding any on showroom floors outside of large cities. 2017 Volkswagen e-Golf Volkswagen e-Golf 2017 Volkswagen e-Golf 2017 Volkswagen e-Golf 2017 VW e-Golf Interior A look at the cargo room of the 2017 VW e-Golf Volkswagen e-Golf DC fast charging (J1772 Combo) 2018 Volkswagen e-Golf battery

Source: Fastned

Categories: BMW, Charging, Hyundai, Nissan, Opel / Vauxhall, Volkswagen

Tags: , , , , , ,

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57 Comments on "Let’s Look At Fast Charging Curves For Popular Electric Cars"

newest oldest most voted
WARREN

Yup, my 33kWh i3 is pretty quick. 22.54 kWh in 30 minutes. 81% finish. So .75kWh/minute average.
Chevy Bolt on the same charger : 27kWh in 47 minutes, 83% finish or only .57kWh/minute average. And thats with that huge battery in the Bolt.

SparkEV BoltEV

Apples to apples, Bolt’s 11kWh remaining to 33 kWh charge would be almost as quick as i3. But beyond 55%, ugh.

Viking79

Thanks for this, it would be nice to see all cars on same and also a 10 – 80% SoC charge time and how many miles that is and convert that to miles/min or miles/30 min.

tech_heavy

That’s too driver specific. Maybe just add information about an average mi/kWh for the vehicle. Total energy transferred would give you the added kWh number, and miles is easy to get from that. But again, depends on how fast you go, and how aggressively you regen or accelerate.

God/Bacardi

If “taper” isn’t sexy enough, why not call this the “Charging Bust”?

dan

Premature Electrification?

Just_Chris

Charge droop.

Nix

charging ED?

Adam

The max charge rate for the Bolt/Ampera-e up until ~55% SOC is actually ~55kW if on a >50kW DCFC like those at the newly opened Electrify America sites. There’s still the taper but overall a respectable average charge rate with the higher power.

Steve

why Are people down voting this guy. 10000% accurate – Bolt owner near an electrify America charging station that goes up to 350 kw. I can’t wait for the porche.

Darth

Could this explain the battery issues with the 30kWh leaf? Maybe they set the charging too aggressive for the battery type. Without active cooling, maybe they are getting over heated.

JoeP

Note that the Leaf battery chemistry generates no or low heat when charging or discharging.

The main problemis ambient heat… when it is hot outside.

Adoreizi

Great article. Really important info for prospective buyers with long distance trips

Texas Leaf

These graphs are very deceptive and don’t tell the whole story. We know that at least with the Leaf charging speed is also a function of temperature and probably other EVs charge at lower speeds when the batteries get. Even an EV with a TMS is going to have a hot battery when it’s 100+ degrees outside.

We have no idea how these graphs were created or under what conditions. We need a more detailed report that covers multiple charging variables.

SparkEV BoltEV

Actually, TMS can keep the battery below ambient temperature, so 100+ degrees outside doesn’t matter as much.

Leaf suffers double whammy, because the battery is heating while driving as well. Then when plugged in, heating gets even worse. With TMS cars, battery is constant temp while being driven, even lower than ambient if necessary, so initial plug-in will be “cool”, and only have to deal with extra heat during charge.

Texas Leaf

Yeah right, dream on. You need an approach to transfer heat.

bioburner

Exactly…. The Leaf doesn’t have active cooling. The Bolt does.

dan

Does your AC stop working when it is 100+ outside?

Cars like the i3 connect their cabin and TMS loops and are able to exchange heat from one to the other or with the outside as required.

SparkEV BoltEV

Even after 55 kW charging with 18.4 kWh SparkEV battery (3C charging rate) in 106 ambient temperature, the battery is not even 90 degrees as shown below screen capture. Properly designed TMS won’t have any problem charging at 100+ degree heat even at 3C.

Considering Leaf tops out 50kW/40kWh=1.25C, even a poorly designed TMS would not have issues at 100+ degree ambient.

Bill Howland

Texas Leaf: “…You need an approach to transfer heat.”

You clearly don’t know what you are talking about. Both my 2011 model cars ran their refrigeration systems when driving in hot weather, and would also cycle them as necessary during charging so that charging speed was NEVER arbitrarily limited by too hot a battery. More modern cars do exactly the same thing. Its only poorly designed battery systems that have problems.

The heat transfer comes from chilled glycol circulating about the battery cooling plates, whose accumulated heat is then removed by the refrigeration system if necessary and dumped out the front of the car through the refrigeration condenser, and/or the battery radiator in more moderate weather.

Just_Chris

I agree you can really draw much out of them as they are a single data point but they are still pretty interesting. I particularly like the way the power increases during charging before the droop. I geuss all the chargers are current limited so as the pack voltage increases so does the power. It’s interesting to see the different voltages in the packs.

tech_heavy

Yes, DC voltage should go up, and the overall power should increase if the current stays the same.

tech_heavy

I think posting more information about the ambient temps would help with understanding the charging curves. Otherwise we’d assume that FastNed did tests at room temps.
Many 50kW DCFC stations don’t deliver 50kW, or even 40kW when charging cars that should see 50kW peak rates.

SparkEV BoltEV

SparkEV tops out about 55kW at 80% when using high power charger using 18.4kWh battery (less due to degradation). Shown below at 75%, 53kW

comment image

Anderlan

Is that the Torque app getting sweet sweet electric drive data from a Spark ECU?

scottf200

Tesla Model 3 — 119 kW — 1/4th SOC
jtpassat https://teslamotorsclub.com/tmc/posts/2785811/
comment image

Rightofthepeople

Thanks Scott! I was thinking, “where’s the graph for Model 3?” Ordered mine on June 29th and am anxiously awaiting delivery in Sept thru Nov timeframe. Also I drive roughly 50k miles per year, mostly business, so supercharging will be a way of life for me. Can you give me an idea what the taper looks like for you? Does it stay near 100 kW up to 80% SOC or start to decrease significantly before that?

arne-nl

Fastned is a Dutch company and there are no Model 3’s this side of the Atlantic yet.

Mark.ca

For direct sale, yes…but there are 3’s in EU already.

Magnus H

None that can charge at FastNed stations, above CHAdeMO power.

Tony Williams

I don’t see how to attach an image.

Steven Loveday

Imgur photos seem to show up without any code. If you drop an image URL in your comment, I usually attempt to add the code so it shows publicly, as long as I catch it and am not too busy.

Benz

Thanks for posting this article.

FastNed is in The Netherlands.

I would have liked to see the graph of the Tesla Model S as well. Too bad FastNed didn’t provide that one as well.

Sch

I doubt there are any Teslas charging slowly on a paid charger while they can use Supercharger for free and get double the charging power. Supercharger network beeing dense enough for a small country like the Netherlands

eject

FastNed has faster chargers than Tesla.

Emily

Yes, the FastNed chargers can go up to 175kW compared to the 120kW of the Superchargers, but Teslas can only charge at up to 50kW on the FastNed chargers since they use CHAdeMO, so I don’t think there are a lot of Teslas using them.

Tech01x

Technically, using the same method of measuring as CCS, Tesla Superchargers are at least 185 kW (500 volts x 370 amps). We typically talk about 120 kW because that is the limit in the cars. Again, applying the same standard, we would be calling all the new CCS EVSE’s 100 kW until a car comes out that can charge faster.

eject

Tesla SC are only 410V.

lo

Is there a Tesla Chademo adapter capable of more than 50 kW? If not it will be a rather boring chart.

Davek

Teslas in Europe have normal Type 2 plugs. No CCS, unfortunately, but it should be easily possible to make an adapter from CCS to Type 2 DC, since it’s all the same protocol. But it is frustrating that Tesla don’t fit their cars with those two little extra pins… That’s all it would take, and then POOF! -no need for adapters any more! The TM3 definitely has room under that big flap!

Henrik

The electronics are different. Tesla use a standard CAN-bus, just like Chademo and GB/T (slightly different standards though) while CCS use a non-standard bus called HomePlug Green PHY for which there are few chips and complex software stacks to run them. While it seemed like a good idea at the time, today a different solution would probably have been chosen.

Cecil T

No, probably not. Homeplug GreenPHY is a PLC protocol and is better, and “standard”, for V2H/V2G/smart home systems. It’s just not standard in the auto industry. Where CAN bus’s days are numbered anyway.

tm

No it is not. Tesla adapter is restricted to 50 kW.

Niel

The Nissan 40 kWh battery test does not represent the rapidgate problem. The problem there is that the third rapid charge of the day will happen at slow charging speeds.

Mil

I currently have a Leaf 30kWh and the graph seems quite accurate to my own experience. However, before this I owed a Leaf 24kWh and the associated graph is wildly off. I can’t remember when I started to see a slow down on a rapid charger but it was a lot higher than the 25% graph. I think it started to slow down around 75% to 80%.

Magnus H

The e-nv200 slows down to around 40kW at 70% or so.

Davek

This is fantastic information to have. I’d love too see all of the curves overlaid on the same graph, and have curves added for the distance added per hour! Or at least adjust the graphs to all be on the same scale. But the distance added per time charged is definitely what matters most.

Jeff N

As a couple of folks have already mentioned, the Fastned graph for the Ampera-e (Bolt EV) is obsolete since it shows charging rates only on an older “50 kW” charger and not on Fastned’s new 175 kW chargers. This could be true of some of the other vehicle graphs as well (I’m not sure).

The article should be updated to make this clear.

On one of their new and faster chargers the Bolt EV graph should be the same except the higher initial rate when under 55 percent state of charge would be about 20 percent higher and would peak at about 55 kW.

Here’s a tweet from a senior Fastned engineer acknowledging 55 kW charging (on another charging network) for the Ampera-e while driving one on a trip out to see an ABB factory. The same would apply to Fastned’s 175 kW (375A) chargers (as Fastned customers have proven).

https://mobile.twitter.com/RolandvanderPut/status/1001085072316030976

jim stack

I wish you could chart the 2015-2016 Chevy SPARK EV . I’ve monitored mine and a friends and they go full amps right up to about 95% . They are the best DC Fast Charging I have ever seen. I’ve also checked our Tesla S and model 3, a KIA SOUL EV I leased and a few others . None are as good as the Chevy SPARK EV. Too bad Chevy stopped making them in 2016 one the Bolt came out.
NOTE: Oh I did later see a post below for a SPARK EV via FastNed. Thanks.

evnv

So Tesla isnt a “popular” electric car?

Rob R

Popular here means uses the Fastned chargers in the Netherlands a lot. Tesla owners will not use them except in an emergency, as they are slower (via CHAdeMO), and more expensive than Superchargers (for those that pay). Fastned appear to provide a CHAdeMO adaptor though (in the Netherlands, not Germany) which will be useful to Tesla owners who do not own one.

Rob R

This is great for owners, and pretty useful for people in the market for an EV. Hardly needs said, but similar tests on a fuller range of EVs, including Teslas, would be an invaluable service.

Marcus

A Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV charges at 16kW upto 80%

EV-Taxi

Each time I read something about the Ioniq, I am more and more impressed with it.
No fuss, no nonsense, but surprisingly, not a lot of sales either.

Anton

In the US, you can barely buy one — available only in Southern California, and even there with significant shortages. I don’t know how widely it is available worldwide, but, in general, there were reports saying that Hyundai underestimated the demand for the Ioniq, and thus couldn’t secure an adequate supply of critical components such as battteries. There may be more to it that I don’t know.

tech_heavy

I’d love to see more articles like this one that explore the power delivered to vehicles in the real world. Many 50kW chargers don’t deliver 50kW – like BTC for instance.

Robert Malcolm Kay

Looking at this, I feel quite smug owning my 30 kWh Leaf: because the price was reasonable and for longer drives it performs quite well on multiple charges as long as you are not to heavy on the pedal. It would be great to have the capability to rapid charge in ten minutes , though.Dream on!