Explained: Mitsubishi i-MiEV With JB Straubel’s Extended Range Pusher Trailer


First i-MiEV In History To Triple-Park

First i-MiEV In History To Triple-Park

Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Pusher Trailer (Image via Matt Stevens)

Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Pusher Trailer (Image via Matt Stevens)

Being born of a petroleum engineer, I spent my childhood bouncing around the globe chasing black gold, so there’s some irony in my infatuation with electric vehicles.  I still enjoy playing with engines, especially when that dichotomy enables a hookup with my first love, the air-cooled Volkswagen!  I read about the pusher trailers built by Mr. Sharkey and JB Straubel back in the early days of the EV Discussion List and saw the immediate practicality of such devices.

Editor’s Note:  Jay’s story is in response an earlier InsideEVs’ article on the curious unit, that only brought up more questions about the pusher and its origins.  Our thanks to Jay!

One could build a high-performance but limited-range EV for daily use, and hook up a proven fossil-fueled drivetrain when needed for highway journeys!  Armchair engineers and knee-jerk reactionaries are usually quick to proclaim such machines to be inherently unstable time bombs (especially Volt drivers- why so defensive?), but having trailering experience in the 400 lb to 20 ton range, I thought otherwise.

Battery-based range trailers get heavy in a hurry, and have high capital cost, and generator sets large enough for continuous highway driving (at least 15 kW) are heavy and spendy too, with the added difficulty of designing an electrical interface that won’t blow both your OEM electronics and your vehicle warranty.  So I resolved to build a pusher trailer and assembled a tidy plywood wedge trailer around a VW transaxle and Type III VW subframe, with the added benefit of a foldout platform tent on top!  See the last two photos in the following collection from Seattle EV Assoc Ex Officio Steve Lough.

Tesla CEO Elon Musk And CTO JB Strubel (via Tesla Club Belgium)

Tesla CEO Elon Musk And CTO JB Strubel (via Tesla Club Belgium)

However, before I managed to get a salvage VW engine running for it, I found the holy grail via online EV forums: the original aircooled VW pusher built by Tesla’s JB Straubel himself!

It had been hibernating in a Palo Alto backyard for over a decade in the hands of its third owner, who had upgraded to a Tesla so was long past any need of a pusher.  I negotiated its donation to the Historic Electric Vehicle Foundation, but was granted use of this item until a museum exhibit is ready to receive it.

By design, a pusher trailer is not used for around-town driving.  It is meant for highway use.  Even so, testing has proven the theory that the pusher’s light weight compared to the tow vehicle does not make it any more prone to jackknifing than a conventional trailer, and the use of a long tongue lends leverage against the pusher’s pitch and yaw.    It also places that noisy engine as far as possible from the driver’s ears and makes it easy to back up, but induces a bit more drag by protruding beyond the tow vehicle’s wake.

The End "Pusher Trailer" Creation (Image via Matt Stevens)

The End “Pusher Trailer” Creation (Image via Matt Stevens)

This pusher trailer went through several Straubel iterations, finally with a small servo to control the throttle and a second fuel tank, though both of those were too badly deteriorated to put back into service.  After testing another hobbyist’s aircooled VW pusher, I became convinced that throttle control was no longer necessary.

With a series-motored conversion like JB’s Porsche 944 or my Karmann Eclectric, there is no regenerative braking to make use of excess power and scrub off speed, so one must either heat up the brakes (the very essence of inefficiency) or turn the engine off on every deceleration.  This provides instant full engine braking, but makes for a rather rough ride.

"Got your range anxiety right here!" - Dash Read Out After 57 Miles of Climbing and Descending Blewett Pass (elev. 4102')

“Got your range anxiety right here!” – Dash Read Out After 57 Miles of Climbing and Descending Blewett Pass (elev. 4102′)

With a modern EV that has strong regen and user control of regen intensity like the i-MiEV, surplus power can be put into the battery instantly.   At 33 kW, the i-MiEV regen packs more watts of recovery per pound than almost anything not built by TESLA, and there are four user-selectable regen intensities, plus peak regen can be tapped in what would be the brake pedal deadband on conventional cars.

The current pushing mode is in a word, binary.  The engine is either pushing at a predetermined throttle setting, or in full engine braking.  During testing I gradually eased up to wide open throttle, and have found that this enables continuous state-of-charge highway cruising at 65 mph, with heavy regen on the downhill sections, and electric boost required to maintain speed when going uphill.

The engine ignition current is supplied by the tow vehicle’s accessory outlet (cigarette lighter plug), and can be turned on and off by simply pulling the plug.  I built a control pendant with a lighted toggle switch to show when the ignition is hot, and one can add a third layer of control by placing a reed switch next to the brake light wire, causing the engine to turn off whenever one hits the brakes.  I wanted to use the highest level of regen, available in the iMiEV brake pedal, so have not used this option.

Also, when pushing in 4th gear, the engine torque is not much of a match for the vehicle brakes.  Full regen slows the vehicle down faster than the usual flow of traffic, and the engine loses much of its torque below 40 mph and stalls out completely if the ignition is left energized below about 30 mph, at which point it switches to full engine braking.

Picking Up A Charge

Picking Up A Charge

Under binary control, the most awkward part of using this pusher is pulling over at the top of a freeway on-ramp and shifting the manual transmission from Neutral to Fourth gear.  The pusher bucks and complains for a couple of seconds, but then spins smoothly and silently until one energizes the ignition at 30 mph or above.  Then the car can accelerate from 40 to 80 mph like a rocket, having exactly twice the power of a stock i-MiEV (or a stock VW Beetle) on tap.

The i3 Is One Of The Few Cars That Makes An i-MiEV Look Sexy

The i3 Is One Of The Few Cars That Makes An i-MiEV Look Sexy

Driving dynamics on the highway are superb.  In town, the trailer bounces and jerks on the hitch like any ordinary cargo trailer, but when power is applied, everything smooths out and the ride is superior to an unladen i-MiEV and better than any trailer I’ve ever pulled.    Those of you who pull trailers with strong brake systems know the feeling: the trailer is smoothest when you are slowing it down or accelerating. Pushing provides a similar effect.

But what about CHAdeMO?  In my experience-based humble opinion, dc fast charging is great for turning a local car into a regional car, but more than one or two fast-charges on a trip take too much time and introduce too much risk to make an i-MiEV or LEAF practical for many trips beyond about 100 miles.

Aerovironment’s decision to price themselves out of the Seattle market was one of the final straws in my decision to pursue a pusher trailer.  Why pay $20/month for a service that you only use on a few journeys per year, due to the huge hole in their territory?  Paying $7.50 for 40-45 miles of travel a-la-carte is just plain stupid.  Of course, TESLA seems to have hit a Supercharging sweet spot, but the rest of us just have to wait for that sweet spot to be economically attainable.

However, pushing at full throttle can’t possibly provide the best fuel economy.  This engine hasn’t been tuned for full-throttle operation, and there must have been a few pits put in the cylinder walls during its decade-plus of outdoor hibernation.   Exactly in line with the other aircooled VW pusher I’ve experienced, this one gets 20 mpg on long trips, which always include some hilly terrain in Western Washington.  When using the pusher just as a mid-range extender, the effective MPG rises significantly (as with a plug-in Prius kit).  For instance, if I drive 45 miles on electric and then push for another 45 miles, the car returns 40 mpg while also returning a small increase in the depleted battery charge, depending on speed and terrain.  I hope to improve upon this by re-tuning the engine and adding back a servo on the throttle.  I’m also interested in reducing emissions via either a propane conversion or a catalytic converter.  However, a good air-cooled VW engine isn’t as bad as most folks think.  Unburnt hydrocarbons are relatively low for a vintage engine, though NOX tends to be high due to the higher combustion temperatures of air-cooled engines.

MR BEAN Saves Christmas

MR BEAN Saves Christmas

Several folk have built engine-powered pusher trailers out of FWD automatics like VW Rabbits and the Honda Civic .  These offer the advantage of a seamless transition from city to highway mode via remote start and automatic shifting, and the same situation applies regarding throttle control, binary vs variable.

I have a genset trailer too;   though it only supplements the range of my homebuilt EV due to the uncertainties involved in hacking OEM systems for on-the-fly charging.  The last few years have seen many attempts to create genset trailers that will interface with OEM vehicles, such as the French EP Tender, but require extensive customization for each vehicle that will pull it.  I wish them well, but their high cost and the small target market has not allowed any market success to date.  An agnostic pusher like this ugly antique can quickly transfer to any vehicle with a trailer hitch, so I hope that no overzealous regulator deprives our small group of hobbyists of the ability to refine this technology.  It is extremely useful and has potential for wider and greener application.

Categories: Concepts, General, Mitsubishi


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43 Comments on "Explained: Mitsubishi i-MiEV With JB Straubel’s Extended Range Pusher Trailer"

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David Murray

While it is fascinating to read about…. Still doesn’t make much sense over just buying a used PHEV of some kind.


Once you drive an i-MiEV for a few days, you realize how wonderfully engineered it is. I’ve been itching to take mine on a road trip, but just haven’t found the time.

Besides, why purchase an entire second vehicle when this one can cover everything, even if all you need is extra range?


I think the i-MiEV would have been a much stronger EV contender if they just put the electrical bits into a Lancer body (with a larger battery, of course). The i-MiEV is very well engineered but was designed to be as light and inexpensive as possible, so some compromises had to be made. Things like sound insulation and 4-passenger seating. Oh, and rear speakers on the 2012 ES model. 😉


how did he park it like that?

He got skillz!


Not only did he triple park, he also ICED two charger spots while charging his i-MiEV!

Nag, nag. He also babysat the charger to make sure nobody was inconvenienced during the 19 minutes it takes for an I-MiEV fast charge.


Oops. Sorry Jay. I didn’t intend for my comment to be a criticism, although re-reading it now I can see how it can be interpreted that way. I meant for it to be a humorous observation in the vein of the “first i-MiEV in history to triple-park” caption under the first picture . Once again, I apologize for the misunderstanding.

I really enjoyed the article, and am intrigued about the possibilities for long road trips in a BEV using a push trailer. Keep up the good work! 🙂

Tusen Takk Sven, it’s all good!

Dave K.

Hi Jay, remember me from Atl? I have seen these on the Album for years and it got me thinking, I think the Smart car is the perfect donor, small compact 3cyl. 70hp, everything in the rear except the radiator and battery. Modern emission controls and wrecked in the front cars available cheap.

Great to see ya here Dave! EV Club of the South has come a long way from when it was a bunch of GA Power engineers crying in their beers over repossessed EV1 and S-10 EVs!


Dave, I think using a donor Smart to make a push trailer is a great idea. The only other car that I can think of that would make a good donor is the 90’s era Toyota MR2 with its rear mounted engine, but the Smart would beat it hands down with regards to modern emissions controls.

Dave K.

I’ve done a little research on the Smart, basically the whole drive train and rear suspension is in that “wedge” under the seats, amazing job of packing! The car even has an “automatic manual” transmission that shifts itself. Can’t imagine a better candidate…

Thanks David, it even looks like there’s a ready-made mounting place for a tongue, but what little research I did on the Smart said that the car’s computers have made drivetrain transplants a challenge for trike builders. Haven’t found a successful example yet that didn’t preserve almost everything but the front axle…




What a find . . . that thing could be a museum piece some day as part of the history of Tesla at the start of the EV age.

Stephen Hodges

Somehow the thought of a headless VW pushing my EV makes me think of that trucking movie with the crazy truck trying to ram you from behind. I think you are very brave.


I think you’re talking about Steven Spielberg’s movie Duel. Great movie!


Wonderful! Thank you for the details.


“One could build a high-performance but limited-range EV for daily use, and hook up a proven fossil-fueled drivetrain when needed for highway journeys! Armchair engineers and knee-jerk reactionaries are usually quick to proclaim such machines to be inherently unstable time bombs (especially Volt drivers- why so defensive?), but having trailering experience in the 400 lb to 20 ton range, I thought otherwise.”

I don’t follow. The first sentence is precisely what a Volt is, without the need for a trailer. Why would Vilt owners be against the idea, owning the refined concept?

I don’t know why, but Volt owners have been the most reactionary thus far. I considered the Volt in 2011 and didn’t buy for a number of reasons, but have never campaigned against the car, other than lampooning General Murders in one little blog post: http://karmanneclectric.blogspot.com/2012/02/byov-build-yer-own-volt.html
Besides, a Volt won’t help the Karmann Eclectric drive to distant EVents like the pusher can, and compared to the Karmann Eclectric’s 300 ft-lbs through four gears, the Volt is not a high performance EV… I’d love to drag race a VOLT with either of my EVs and Pusher in tow too!


I suppose it’s different preferences for different people then.

Also, I think if you’re referring to GM as “General Murders” in your reply to me, then you’re probably biased against them more than you realize.

> I’d love to drag race a VOLT with either of my EVs and Pusher in tow too!

I like this idea Jay. Though after considering it, I seriously doubt the track safety inspectors would let you run it. It would make a great display piece at Silent Thunder 🙂


Just no. EPA shows old high polluting engines like this VW has make 50-100x the pollution off a modern car.

This comes across as selfish and very silly. A lot of people would be much more impressed with a VW battery trailer.

So if we were to stipulate that the aircooled engine pollutes 50x more than a modern car, and mine has pushed for less than 500 of my 57,000 i-MiEV miles, that would be (0.5/57)50, or 44% as bad as a modern car over 57,000 miles. However, I do not so stipulate. Here is an actual aircooled VW emissions test, at below California limits. Not this particular engine, but a similar one. As stated, I am working on tuning and further emissions improvements.
http://www.ratwell.com/technical/Smog/2006Report.jpg (image below)


Does it meet stringent modern emissions?

I assume that smog test is for bin two emissions in the eighties or something, right?


I’d personally be more concerned with the plastic gas tank that is strapped to it in the pictures. That would not hold up well in a crash. 😉

The plate “Mr. Bean” still is left unexplained. 🙂

My kids said the car looks like a bean. I forced them to watch BBC reruns, but that just made the name stick!


If you think your not driving an I.C.E. Then let me ask you this, how many miles do you get to the gallon. Yes, around town you are driving on Electricity but when you. Have the half a bug hooked up you are no different than any other VW driver, burning gas.
What I would like to see is a half bug with about fifty kW of batteries so your range would be, perhaps 400 miles? Now that would be awesome!!

Please read the article Edgar, as the mpg figures are revealed therein. 50 kWh of batteries would weigh over 1300 lb, which MR BEAN would not be happy with or very safe to tow. I may be crazy, but I ain’t plain stupid!
(with apologies to Mrs. Blue)

Big Solar

I always called mi Imiev the “Japanese Beetle”



Thanks for sharing. I had no idea a “pusher trailer” could provide such stability while pushing.

But still, it seems like a low-tech kludge. The 20 MPH figure makes it pretty clear this is not an efficient use of energy. I acknowledge what you said about attaching a genset trailer being complex, but just because a pusher trailer is simpler, that doesn’t mean it’s as good a solution.

And besides, a genset trailer like this one looks so much nicer:

Lensman, you appear to be approaching my point. The AC Propulsion Long Ranger was a high dollar failed attempt at a product that could be commercialized. The VW pusher is something that any yahoo with a free Saturday afternoon could put together from salvaged parts. Guess which one achieves the mission of unlimited EV range extension.


Jay, thanks for responding.

I’m not so sure that AC Propulsion has ever been interested in a commercial product. After all, it was their refusal to build Martin Eberhard a tZero that lead to his decision to found Tesla Motors, at least partly so he could have something similar.

Jay Donnaway said:

“Guess which one achieves the mission of unlimited EV range extension.”

Looks to me like they both do. But according to the source below, the Long Ranger gets 30-35 MPH on the highway vs. your 20 MPH.



the original one: http://www.eptender.com/

Mister G

Definitely not safe to drive on US highways..a rear end collision will send gasoline and flames all over the place.

Well, if the center-mounted fuel tank gets loose from a rear end collision, the gasoline and flames would be spread primarily over the car that failed to stop, so one could view that as defensive driving. In a car that has onboard fuel tanks, it is the vehicle occupants that get incinerated, often within the passenger compartment. Perhaps we should pull all 10 million Chevy trucks with side saddle fuel tanks and 1.5 million classic Mustangs from the road. (See I don’t just pick on GM.)



Point taken though, I already have a steel tank and NHRA-compliant steel straps ready to replace the plastic one.


I am sure that if you set out to build the perfect pusher trailer, you would do something different, and you’re probably not trying to make this one perfect. I wonder, though, if you would make a period-correct modification. I know some air cooled VWs were available with an automatic clutch operated by a microswitch. I think having a clutch operable from the driver’s seat would make this much more useful and eliminate a lot of the trouble of having either full power or full engine braking. Along with the servo throttle, I think that’d be a great change. Also, is the motor spewing unburned fuel when engine braking/ignition off, or do the carbs cut fuel when the ignition goes off?

Thanks for recognizing a fun hack as a fun hack Ned, rather than comparing it to a finished product. I simply did not have an AutoStick VW to play with, plus they’re pretty rare now due to maintenance issues and low performance.
I built a 12V actuator-actuated clutch that failed during testing, so haven’t gone further with that yet, deciding to KISS and get on the road.

There is a functioning fuel shutoff solenoid hooked in with the ignition system.


As someone with a fondness for fun hacks, and who’d rather make something neat than buy it, I think I understand that you’re going for the novel approach rather than the practicality.

I’d be interested in the follow-up if you ever did get the actuated clutch going. When I read the account of this thing by the original builder years ago, that seemed like the next logical step to me.

Do you think you’ll keep this one ready for a someday museum home and build another? If so, will it be an aircooled VW, or will you go for a more modern FWD car donor? I think an automatic transmission would be a great benefit. Dealing with an ECU might be difficult if you attempt to pare the car down to bare essentials, but perhaps not bad if you leave most of the harness intact. Is there a place I can keep tabs on any future developments?

This pusher is promised to the Historic Electric Vehicle Foundation museum, currently in temporary quarters in Kingman, Arizona.
The next pusher project will be batteries with a Kaylor Kit, enabling regen via contractor control. Given the interest this is generating, I’ll endeavor to update the old weblog.

Steve Harvey

Jay — Nice article. Funny that you mentioned being born of a petroleum engineer. I am in the same boat — My dad was also a petroleum engineer. (And my granddad was an oil businessman.) I grew up hearing about how we were going to run out of oil someday, and I think that really shaped my worldview. Probably that’s why I have became such an EV fanatic.

I think dad would approve. 🙂

Why use two wheels when one will do? I’m wondering how difficult it would be to add controls for my F650 motorcycle so it could be used in similar fashion. Mounting a motorcycle behind a MiEV could keep it cruising along the freeway at greater efficiency. My single-cylinder BMW puts out over 30kW with a cleaner exhaust than the VW. Plus, it can run on E85!

This approach would have the benefit of transporting a useful vehicle along the route instead of lugging along a special purpose pusher.

Thank you for your (re?)pioneering work, Jay!