EV Sales By Fast Charging Standards; The “Big 3” Converge

NOV 23 2017 BY MARK KANE 39

Worldwide DC Fast Rechargeable Electric Car Sales (estimated) – EV Sales Blog data

An interesting comparison of global plug-in vehicles sales by DC fast charging type – CHAdeMO, CCS Combo and Tesla Supercharging (excluding China’s GB/T) has been compiled by EV Sales Blog.

Combined Charging System (CCS)

And as it turns out, the gap between the three types has shrunk in 2017. CHAdeMO still notes the highest sales, but Tesla and CCS-equipped cars are approaching fast.

Here we need to explain however that:

  • CHAdeMO is worldwide standard (all the CHAdeMO-equipped cars are compatible with all the CHAdeMO chargers)
  • CCS Combo – occurs in two versions (Combo 1 & Combo 2). The Combo 1 is used in North America, while Combo 2 is promoted in most of the rest of the world. The cars with Combo 1 are compatible only with chargers with Combo 1 plugs, and the same concerns Combo 2. In other worlds, those are similar, twin, but incompatibile standards.
  • Tesla Superchargers – also occurs in two versions. First is proprietary for North America (and some other markets), while the second is based on the European Type 2 AC plug, but modified to handle 1-phase, 3-phase and DC charging. Cars and Superchargers in North America and most of the rest of the world are incompatible (at least until someone will not modify them). This is one of the problem when importing used Tesla from U.S. to Europe.

2018 Nissan LEAF – CHAdeMO charging inlet

The results over the first nine months of the year:

  • CHAdeMO – 92,045
  • Tesla Supercharging – 73,227
  • CCS – 67,606
  • Chinese GBT – excluded from the comparison

As the CHAdeMO protocol relies mainly on the Nissan LEAF and the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, the CHAdeMO numbers mimic those two offerings sales; meaning that we will likely note a surge in those totals as the new 2018 LEAF arrives globally in January (today in Japan), and also the Outlander PHEV arrives (finally) in the US.

The CCS Combo standard, is ‘supported’ by the widest group of manufacturers, but so far the CCS numbers are lower than both CHAdeMO and Tesla standards – as none of those OEMs have yet really assisted in the actual build-out of the standard as Tesla and Nissan have; something that will be changing soon in the US (With VW’s dieselgate settlement) and in Europe this Fall with a new ~350 kW network (via 4 major OEMs)

Here is a graph showing cumulative result to date:

All-time Worldwide DC Fast Rechargeable Electric Cars Fleet (estimated) – EV Sales Blog data

Tesla Model S charging inlet and plug in Europe

source: EV Sales Blog

Categories: Charging, Sales

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39 Comments on "EV Sales By Fast Charging Standards; The “Big 3” Converge"

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I guess that it will be really complicated for the Chademo standard since the highest end offering has only 150 miles of range. I guess that Bolt and (eventually) Porsche Mission E will drive a higher adoption of CCS. Even the future 225 miles Leaf will be the only long range Chademo option from 2019 and nobody else will do. Without 200+ miles range the need of a fast charger is much lower since people who drive long distances regularly are more likely to prefer a car that has a long range, thus most currently (and many of future) Chademo equipped cars will probably be used as city-only cars by most owners.

The sad thing is that we’re still talking about three competing charging formats — and even incompatible variations within those formats — rather than one true standard. And this article ignores the Chinese charging format, which means there are actually four competing formats! 🙁


There can only be one per region since people don’t drive between continents. China doesn’t have a problem. All cars sold there use GB/T. The BMW i3 for example uses Chademo in Japan and CCS in the US and Europe. Car manufacturers need to learn to localize their products. It’s not that hard. Most electronics support 110v, 220v, 50hz, 60hz and are sold with the appropriate plug for the country.

That doesn’t make it less stupid.

He explained that it does.

He explained why they will continue to get away with senseless incompatible charging standards.

Incompatible charging standards is still a drag on the EV industry as a whole.

“He explained that it does.”

No, he didn’t explain that makes it less stupid, he just asserted that it does, without providing any supporting evidence.

Having four (or actually six?) different charging formats costs auto makers more to develop different versions for different regions, and no amount of argument is going to change that fact.

Maybe there were videtotape players which could record and play both VHS and BetaMAX format, but that doesn’t mean it actually made sense for videotape manufacturers to continue to make commercial videotapes in two different formats.

The DVD format took off very fast partly because there were not competing formats for that standard. If and when EV makers get around to agreeing a universal charging standard, that will certainly help boost EV sales.


Pu pu, you can convene your world congress of religions and hash it out. Everybody there will agree that there can only be one.?

The different chargers are an absurdity and show the immaturity of the whole EV industry.

We should have one charging standard per continent and all fast charging EVs able to charge at any station. Charge $ per kwh with price varying by locality, time of day, day of the week, and season of the year (how electricity is sold with a time of use meter). Add a penalty charge for remaining plugged in when the charging rate falls below a certain threshold, especially when the station is busy.

Overnight (off peak) level 2 charging at home will likely remain the best deal for those who are able to do it.

People DO drive across regional borders all the time. People ship cars to other continents all the time as well. The US alone exports some 762,000 used cars per year, or around 34% of car export by volume. It supports residual values and so new car purchases as well.

Since you have CCS 1, CCS2, Tesla US, Tesla EU, CHadeMo, and GB/T in China it sum up to 6 standard.

But you can argue that 3 phase charging is also a standard.

At least CHadeMO is worlwide.

“One charger plug to rule them alllll…” (please)

Ha! Wasn’t that the Slogan for the SAE idea with CCS?

This whole thing is just an embarrassment to modern society. You couldn’t just come up with one simple standard to plug things into the SAME D*MN ELECTRICITY?

I still don’t see the need for a Chademo plug on the Outlander PHEV, but I really want one! Can’t wait to test drive the Outlander. As long as I’m not really disappointed by performance, fit and finish that should be my next car. Even with all the highway miles I drive I should be able to double the mpg I am currently getting in my Mazda CX-9 (22 mpg, yuk).

+1 should be a great car.

The best use for CHAdeMO on such a vehicle is for power export. CHAdeMO is bidirectional.

CCS is bidirectional too, otherwise vehicle to grid would not be supported.

Use chademo often while i eat something at a restroom here at the german autobahn. When i finished, the battery has 80 percent and that brings mpg realy down. Outlander PHEV need thats why in average only 3,5 l/100 km.

That’s gross.

Yeah… he probably meant rest stop. LOL

Sorry, my english is poor. Rest stop, and it brings mpg up not down. But Outlander PHEV is realy great!

No apology needed, your English is much better than most Americans anything else.

Both green and red are going to dwarf blue over the next 6 months.

If you consider that Tesla makes a Chademo adapter, green should really be even higher.


I wonder why Tesla has not made a CCS adapter yet?

I don’t know enough about it, but I believe it’s different enough from Chademo that it requires quite a bit more work.

CHAdeMO, GB/T and Tesla use CAN, while CCS uses PLC(HLC) for digital communication between the charger and the vehicle. CCS is an alien in the world of DC fast charging.

Somebody said that six months ago.

Well, that someone was partially correct, and I’ll be fully correct.

Last dying breath of the green then? 😛

With basically every car manufacturer behind the blue that is not the one to bet on to be dwarfed in the long run.

The Green Team:
Toyota, Nissan, Honda, Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Citroen, Tesla, Kia, Bollinger, Mahindra, London Taxi, Fuso, Isuzu and many more..
Check out the CHAdeMO-HP.

For the short term, but most of the plug in cars in the pipeline for north America are coming from manufactures who have gone with CCS. That will turn around. I think it will be red and blue when the dust settles. The leaf can’t drive an industry standard all by itself. I’m not worried about charging my Bolt on the future.

It could be worse. There are somewhere around 15 different plug types and standards for just basic household plugins:


People can complain all they want – its not changing…. Electric distribution is different between North America and the rest of the world (the UK actually capitalizes on this fact in some residential only areas where 3-phase power is NOT available – gleening the absolute cheapest distribution method there is worldwide, while still ‘looking like’ the rest of Europe). CCS will win out since there are really not 2 different CCS’s. The difference obviously is the ‘type 1 or 2’ necessary for home charging and since THOSE will always remain different (some Europeans have stated why don’t the Americans just use our Jacks, and the reason is – Americans don’t want to pay for the Extra Pin!). Europeans seems to love lots of different plugs, even if you’re staying in the same small area. From that point of view, the US is far more standardized. Its not a problem in any event since any US electric can be sent to Europe (the charging rate at single phase will be limited to 32 amps in Britain, to 20 amperes in Germany, and 15 amps in Italy, but for home charging its not that big a deal since the car will still… Read more »

Seems like the connectors that Tesla uses in Europe would be a good candidate for a future One World Standard, but if home appliances have taught us anything, it’s that people care more about preserving their existing power connectors than establishing worldwide compatibility.

I do think CCS will eventually win outside of Europe, if only for the fact that it’s backward compatible with the L2 connectors (and isn’t proprietary like Tesla’s USA connectors). That’s a significant benefit in the long run.

The graphs should Be broken out by region (if they are not).

I would also like to see graphs for the number of charging stations and chargers for the different types.

Looking at the data for the US based on the alternative fuels database CHADEMO is not much ahead of CCS at this point (and especially if you take away all the dealership installed Chademo).

China gbt outnumbers all other standards combined. So its a jostle for second place.


China gbt made the same design choices as chademo, just differing plugs and messages. But all manufactures now must treat twin port with separate ac and dc plugs with CAN as the default consideration to design and scale for.

The one plug to rule is GBT. Chademo gets long term benefit because gbt and chademo use similar design and components.

CCS cars must now kow tow to GBT as the default design. Just watch 2018.

Fast Charging is going to be regional, just like it is with power plugs/sockets throughout the world.

I predict we’ll end up with GBT in China (no brainer), CHADEMO in Japan and maybe some other Asian countries, and CCS everywhere else. CHADEMO may hold on for years outside Asia, but Nissan can’t extend its life forever while everyone else uses CCS.

Of course Tesla will do their own thing where possible. Though hopefully the standard interfaces will catch up to Superchargers and allow Tesla to standardize at some point.

The tsunami of Model 3 sales have not started, that will blow this graph out of the water.
And there are two variants of CCS and Tesla, so really that is two different values not all the same. If you want to use this measure then it has to be the ability to plug into that exact plug, otherwise you might as well say CHAdeMO is the same as CCS is the same as Super Charger because they are all DC.

It doesn’t have to be more difficult than that you have a petrol pump next to the diesel pump… The DC charging point can have both Chademo and CCS.